In 2003, HHS Secretary Tommy Thompson approved the revision to the US Standard Certificates of Death and Fetal Death and encouraged all states to adopt them. The process involved in this revision, as well as details of what was revised, can be found at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vital_certificate_revisions.htm.
Texas adopted the new US Standard Certificates of Death and Fetal Death in 2006. This revision includes changes to items such as alcohol use, race/ethnicity, etc. For details regarding race/ethnicity computation, see Table 44.
A total of 164,135 Texas residents died in 2008. The leading cause of death, diseases of the heart, accounted for 23.5 percent of those deaths, while the second most common cause of death, malignant neoplasms (cancer), accounted for 21.7 percent. Cerebrovascular diseases, accidents and chronic lower respiratory diseases, ranked third, fourth, and fifth, respectively. Together, these five leading causes of death represented 62.1 percent of all deaths in 2008..
The number of infant deaths decreased to 2,478 deaths in 2008 compared to 2,541 deaths in 2007. The infant mortality rate has decreased also - to 6.1 infant deaths per 1,000 live births from 6.2 in 2007. Fetal deaths increased from 2,364 in 2007 to 2,474 in 2008. The fetal death ratio increased to 6.1 fetal deaths per 1,000 live births in 2008 compared to 5.8 in 2007. Ninety women died in 2008 as a result of pregnancy or childbearing for a maternal mortality rate of 22.2 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.
Years of potential life lost (YPLL), a measure of premature mortality, is the sum of years lost by persons who die before age 65 (see Technical Appendix). The YPLL by Texans decreased from 934,426 in 2007 to 928,043 in 2008. Accidents, malignant neoplasms, and heart diseases continued to be the top three leading causes of premature mortality in Texas.
Leading Causes of Death
The order of the top three leading causes of death had remained the same since 1979, it changed only in 2007 when cerebrovascular diseases and accidents exchanged their positions. In 2008, heart diseases claimed 38,493 lives (39,253 in 2007) and continued to be the leading cause of death followed by malignant neoplasms (cancer) with 35,618 deaths (35,005 in 2007). Diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms have been the first and second leading causes of death in Texas and the nation since 1950.
Cerebrovascular diseases ranked third with 9,550 deaths, compared to 9,472 in 2007. The top three leading causes of death, diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular diseases, accounted for 51.0 percent of all Texas resident deaths in 2008. Accidents with adverse effects with 9,455 deaths (9,495 in 2007) and chronic lower respiratory diseases with 8,858 deaths (8,082 in 2007) rounded out the top five leading causes of death.
The sixth leading cause was Alzheimer's disease with 5,276 deaths in 2008 (4,805 in 2007) and the number of deaths due to diabetes mellitus was 5,170 in 2008 (5,105 in 2007). Influenza and pneumonia were the eighth leading cause with 3,542 deaths in 2008. Nephritis and related diseases were the ninth leading cause with 3,527 deaths in 2008. Septicemia was the tenth leading cause with 2,964 deaths in 2008.
Although suicide is no longer one of the ten leading causes of death among all Texas residents, it is the ninth leading cause in the White/Other race/ethnicity category. The sixth leading cause of death for the Hispanic category in 2008 was chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Leading causes of death for the Black race/ethnicity category include HIV disease that is the ninth leading cause of death for this race/ethnicity category (see Table 16 for the leading causes of death by race/ethnicity). For details regarding race/ethnicity computation, see Table 44.
The majority of deaths (31.4 percent) in 2008 to residents ages 1 through 44 were due to accidents. Malignant neoplasms were responsible for 11.7 percent of all deaths to this age group and diseases of the heart claimed the lives of another 8.9 percent.
Beginning at age 45, accidents play a less significant role in total deaths; only 10.6 percent of all deaths to individuals 45-54 were due to accidents. However, diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms were responsible for 46.3 percent of the deaths to this age group. Deaths due to chronic conditions (diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease) were the major causes of death in individuals 55 years and older, accounting for 65.2 percent of deaths to this age group in 2008.
Although males represented half (50.1 percent) of the Texas population in 2008, they accounted for 60.5 percent of all deaths to persons 1 through 74 years of age. Much of this difference is due to the greater likelihood of males dying at younger ages from external causes (such as accidents, homicide, and suicide) and HIV infection (see Table 17).
There were 2,478 infant deaths to Texas residents in 2008 for an infant mortality rate of 6.1 infant deaths per 1,000 live births (see Table 29). The Black infant mortality rate (9.9) continued to be considerably greater than the rate of Whites (5.9) and Hispanics (5.4).
The top five leading causes of infant death in 2008 were congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities (21.4 percent of all infant deaths); disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified (15.0 percent of infant deaths); Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (9.2 percent); maternal complications of pregnancy (6.2 percent); and accidents (4.1 percent). For the selected causes of infant death among Texas residents, see Table 31.
The majority (1,544; 62.3 percent) of infant deaths in 2008 took place during the first 27 days of life (neonatal period), and the rate of neonatal deaths in Texas was 3.8 per 1,000 live births (see Table 30). By rank, the top leading causes of neonatal death were congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities (25.3 percent) and disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified (23.3 percent). For the selected causes of neonatal death among Texas residents, see Table 32.
Fetal Deaths and Perinatal Mortality
In Texas, a fetal death is the death of a product of conception before complete expulsion or extraction from its mother. It is required to be registered with the Vital Statistics Unit as a fetal death for any fetus weighing 350 grams or more, or if the weight is unknown, a fetus aged 20 weeks or more. However, all reported fetal deaths, regardless of weight or length of gestation, are included in this annual report. There were 2,474 fetal deaths to Texas residents in 2008. The fetal death ratio was 6.1 fetal deaths per 1,000 live births in 2008, which is more than in 2007 (5.8).
Perinatal mortality includes fetal and neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 9.4 per 1,000 fetal deaths and live births in 2008 (9.2 in 2007). For fetal and perinatal mortality figures, see Table 28.
In 2008, 90 women died as a result of pregnancy or childbearing, for a maternal mortality rate of 22.2 per 100,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate for Black women of 41.5 is higher in 2008 than it was in 2007 (26.0) and continues to be higher than the state value. The maternal mortality rate for White (excluding Other) women increased to 25.4 in 2008 from 21.6 in 2007. Among Hispanic women, the maternal mortality rate dropped to 14.8 in 2008 from 15.2 in 2007. However, rates based on small numbers may be misleading (see Technical Appendix).
Life Expectancy at Birth
Texans born in 2008 had a life expectancy at birth of 77.7 years. Because males tend to die from more external causes (such as accidents, homicide, and suicide) and at younger ages than females, females had a higher life expectancy at birth than males: 80.2 years vs. 75.2. A Hispanic child born in 2008 had a life expectancy at birth of 79.3 years, while a White newborn had a life expectancy of 77.4 years. Black life expectancy remained below the average, at 74.6 years (see Table 25).
Age-Adjusted Death Rate
The age-adjusted death rate for Texas in 2008 was 815.5 deaths per 100,000 population. The age-adjusted death rate for males was 920.7 in 2008 and the rate for females was 722.6. The age-adjusted death rate for Whites and Others, regardless of gender, was 844.1 deaths per 100,000 population. The Hispanic rate of 667.3 remained the lowest of all racial/ethnic groups in 2008. The age-adjusted death rate for Blacks continued to be well above the rate for the Texas population as a whole at 979.3 per 100,000 population (see Table 26A).
Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL)
The YPLL statistic is a way to demonstrate both gender and race/ethnicity differences in mortality risks and is the sum of years lost by persons who die before the age of 65 (see Technical Appendix). The total YPLL for Texans in 2008 was 928,043 years, down from 934,426 years in 2007 (see Table 27). Male mortality accounted for 586,539 or 63.2 percent of these years and the total YPLL for women was 341,504 or 36.8 percent. This difference is mostly due to males dying at younger ages than females from causes that are primarily external or preventable in nature, such as accidents and HIV infection.
Death by accident was the number one cause of premature mortality in 2008 and represented 192,548 YPLL, or 8.8 years per 1,000 persons ages 0-64. Malignant neoplasms were responsible for the second largest number of years lost with 133,352 YPLL, for a rate of 6.1. Heart diseases had a rate of 4.6 and remained the third leading cause of YPLL in Texas, with 101,727 years of potential life lost. Conditions arising in the perinatal period was the fourth leading cause of premature mortality with 73,625 YPLL, with a rate of 3.4. The number of years lost from suicide and homicide were the fifth and sixth leading cause of premature mortality in Texas with YPLLs of 54,649 and 47,172 respectively (or 2.5 and 2.2 years per 1,000 persons ages 0-64 respectively).
2008 Annual Report Table of Contents
Annual Reports for Other Years
Center for Health Statistics