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2002 Natality

 

Births and Birth Rates

There were 372,369 live births to Texas residents in 2002, an increase of 2.0 percent (7,277 more births) from 2001, and an increase of 15.7 percent (50,408 more births) from 1993.

 

Births and Birth Rates

In the ten-year period from 1993 through 2002, the proportion of births to white* mothers decreased every year, from 46.4 percent of all births in 1993 to 40.9 percent in 2002. At the same time, the proportion of births to Hispanic mothers increased from 40.7 percent of births in 1993 to 47.9 percent in 2002. The number of Hispanic births has exceeded the number of white births since 1996. The proportion of births to black mothers decreased from 12.9 percent in 1993 to 11.2 percent in 2002.

* Includes women of other and unknown race/ethnicity.

The 2002 crude birth rate of 17.1 births per 1,000 Texas residents is the lowest on record. The crude birth rate has decreased by 0.1 births per 1,000 residents from 2001. The rate for whites* dropped from 13.6 in 1993, to 12.7 in 2002. The crude birth rate for blacks declined from 20.0 in 1993 to 16.5 in 2002. The Hispanic rate went from 26.9 to 24.6. The proportion of births to black mothers decreased from 13.4 percent in 1992 to 11.1 percent in 2001.

 

Crude Birth Rates

The 2002 crude birth rate of 17.1 births per 1,000 Texas residents is the lowest on record. The crude birth rate has decreased by 0.1 births per 1,000 residents from 2001. The rate for whites* dropped from 13.6 in 1993, to 12.7 in 2002. That of blacks declined from 20.0 in 1993 to 16.5 in 2002. The Hispanic rate went from 26.9 to 24.6.

 

General Fertility Rates


Mother’s Age and Father’s Age

More than half (55.1 percent) of Texas resident live births in 2002 were to mothers 20 to 29 years of age, and three-fourths (75.2 percent) were to mothers 20 to 34 years old (Table A). From 2001 to 2002, the percentage of teen-aged mothers declined. Mothers aged 10-17 accounted for 5.3 percent of the births in 2002, compared to 5.4 percent in 2001. The percentage of mothers aged 18 and 19 dropped from 9.3 to 9.0 percent. This decline is found for all race/ethnicities in these age groupings. In the same time frame, the percentage of births to mothers aged 30-39 increased from 20.0 to 20.2 percent for mothers aged 30-34 and increased from 8.6 to 8.7 percent for mothers aged 35-39.

Table A.1. Percent distribution of live births by mother’s
age and race/ethnicity; Texas Residents, 2002.
Percent of Live Births**
Age White* Black Hispanic All Races
10-14 0.1 0.5 0.4 0.3
15-19 8.9 18.3 17.3 14.0
20-24 23.9 35.0 31.4 28.7
25-29 27.5 22.6 26.3 26.4
30-34 25.9 15.1 16.5 20.2
35-39 11.3 6.9 6.8 8.7
40+ 2.5 1.6 1.4 1.8
  • * Includes women of other and unknown race/ethnicity.
  • ** Denominator for percent excludes missing data.
  • Note: due to rounding, percents may not sum to 100%


Table A.2. Percent distribution of live births by mother's
age and race/ethnicity; Texas residents, 2002.
Percent of Live Births for Selected Age Groups
Age White* Black Hispanic All Races
10-17 2.6 7.2 7.1 5.3
18-19 6.4 11.7 10.6 9.0
20-29 51.4 57.6 57.6 55.1
20-34 77.3 72.6 74.1 75.2
35+ 13.7 8.5 8.2 10.5
  • * Includes women of other and unknown race/ethnicity.
  • ** Denominator for percent excludes missing data.
  • Note: due to rounding, percents may not sum to 100%

Mothers' ages ranged from 10 to 53 years; the mean mother's age was 26.3 years. Among birth certificates that included information on the father's age (85.9 percent of all birth certificates), fathers ranged in age from 13 to 90. The mean father's age was 29.3 years.

Age-specific birth rates, calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 women in the specified age group, were highest among women aged 20-24, followed by women aged 25-29 for all races combined (Table B). Hispanic women aged 20-24, followed by Hispanic women aged 25-29 and black women aged 20-24 had the highest age specific birth rates for individual race/ethnicities. White women were the only race/ethnicity whose highest age-specific birth rate occurred in the 25-29 age group. Age-specific birth rates for Hispanics were higher than rates for whites or blacks at every age group except for the ages 10 to 14. Blacks and Hispanics had the same fertility in that age group. Whites in the youngest three age groups had the lowest fertility; blacks had the lowest fertility in the remaining age groups.

Table B. Race/ethnicity and age-specific rates1
(live births per 1,000 women in the race/ethnicity and age group);
Texas Residents, 2002
Age White* Black Hispanic All Races
10-14 0.3 2.0 2.0 1.2
15-19 34.4 71.7 98.3 63.9
20-24 96.8 143.1 178.0 134.9
25-29 112.2 100.0 147.5 125.0
30-34 92.6 61.5 98.5 90.9
35-39 37.8 26.9 45.8 39.0
40-44 6.9 6.0 10.0 7.7
All ages^ 60.1 67.5 102.2 76.1
  • * Includes women of other and unknown race/ethnicity.
  • ^ The general fertility rate. Numerator includes mothers of unknown ages; denominator is women 15-44 years of age.
  • 1. Rates were calculated using population data from the Texas A & M Department of Rural Sociology. Births of unknown race/ethnicity, and of racial/ethnic groups other than white, black or Hispanic were included with white for the purposes of calculating birth and fertility rates.

Marital Status

Overall, 67.5 percent of mothers reported being married. However, there were large differences in marriage rates across age groups and race/ethnicities (Table C). In general, white mothers were most likely to be married and black mothers least likely to be married. Very few mothers aged 14 and younger were married, although very young Hispanic mothers were most likely to be married and very young black mothers were least likely to be married. The likelihood of being married generally increased with the mother's age for all race/ethnicities, although marriage rates for white mothers dropped slightly beginning with the 35-39 age group, and for Hispanic mothers at age 40 and up.

Table C. Marital status by mother's age and race/ethnicity;
Texas Residents, 2002
Percent Married**
Age White* Black Hispanic All Races
10-14 7.2 0.0 11.9 8.7
15-19 31.3 7.4 35.0 30.0
20-24 65.2 25.0 59.2 56.6
25-29 87.6 50.9 75.0 78.1
30-34 93.2 68.3 81.1 86.4
35-39 92.6 69.5 81.2 86.2
40+ 90.5 70.4 77.2 83.8
All ages^ 79.2 37.8 64.4 67.5
  • * Includes women of other and unknown race/ethnicity.
  • ** Denominator for percent excludes missing data.
  • ^ Numerator includes mothers of unknown ages.

Prenatal Care

Beginning with 2001 data, Vital Statistic annual reports do not include tables or data based on the Kessner Index. (These data may still be obtained by request.) Please see the sources at the end of this chapter for more information regarding strengths and weaknesses of various prenatal care utilization indexes1, 2.

This annual report still includes data on the month in which prenatal care began because it is one of the indicators suggested by the CDC's Healthy People 2010 initiative3. The Kessner index data in Table 13 has been replaced with data on the mother's marital and educational status.

Table D. Trimester prenatal care began; Texas Residents, 2002
Percent of Live Births**
Trimester White* Black Hispanic All Races
1st 87.8 76.8 75.1 80.3
2nd 9.4 17.5 18.3 14.7
3rd 2.1 3.5 4.1 3.0
No care 0.8 2.1 2.7 1.9
  • * Includes women of other and unknown race/ethnicity.
  • ** Denominator for percent excludes missing data.
  • Note: due to rounding, percents may not sum 100%.

Tobacco and Alcohol Use

Overall, 6.2 percent of mothers reported using tobacco during their pregnancy and 1.0 percent reported consuming alcohol. Of mothers who reported using tobacco during their pregnancy, 11.7 percent delivered low birth weight infants, compared to 7.4 percent of births to non-smokers. Of births to mothers who reported using alcohol during their pregnancy, 12.0 percent were low birth weight, compared to 7.6 percent for women who used no alcohol.

Risk Factors and Birth Complications

In 2002, one third (33.0 percent) of birth certificates indicated a risk factor. A comparable share of white women (34.5 persent) reported at least one risk factor. Black women had a higher rate of risk factors at 40.0 percent, while Hispanic women had the lowest rate at 30.0 percent. The most frequently reported risk factor was hypertension, which was checked on 3.9 percent of birth certificates.

The overall rate of complications during labor, delivery, or both was 25.7 percent. Black women had the highest rate of complications at 27.9 percent. 25.4 percent of white women and 25.5 percent of Hispanic women reported complications. The most frequently reported complication was moderate to heavy meconium, reported on 4.2 percent of birth certificates.

Place of Delivery and Birth Attendent

Nearly all Texans who gave birth in 2002 did so in a hospital (99.2 percent). A small number occurred in licensed birthing centers or at home (0.4 percent each), or other locations (negligible).

Physicians delivered 94.5 percent of infants born to Texas residents. Certified nurse-midwives attended 4.7 percent of all births and lay midwives attended 0.4 percent. The remainder, about 0.3 percent, were delivered by other types of attendants, such as EMS workers, taxi drivers, or relatives.

Obsterical Procedures and Delivery

The vast majority of birth certificates had at least one obstetrical procedure indicated. The most frequently reported procedure was the use of fetal monitoring, which was checked on approximately 89.9 percent of birth certificates.

In 2002, 70.4 percent of births were vaginal deliveries, 1.1 percent were vaginal deliveries after a previous C-section, 16.1 percent were primary C-sections, and 12.3 percent were repeat C-sections. Of the vaginal births, 6.8 percent involved the use of vacuum, forceps, or both. Forceps or vacuum were also reported in 2.8 percent of the C-section births. The percentage of C-section deliveries has been gradually increasing, reaching 28.4 percent in 2002.

Abnormal Conditions and Congenital Anomalies

Hispanic infants were less likely to have an abnormal condition as a newborn and were slightly less likely to be diagnosed with a congenital anomaly than were white or black infants. Overall, 8.3 percent of 2002 births reported an abnormal condition of the newborn, compared to 7.4 percent of Hispanic births, 9.0 percent of white births, and 9.9 percent of black births. The most frequently reported abnormal condition was assisted ventilation for less that 30 minutes, which was indicated on 3.1 percent of birth certificates.

Congenital anomalies followed a similar pattern. The overall rate was 0.8 percent, with 0.8 percent of Hispanic births, 0.9 percent of white births, and 1.0 percent of black births reporting a congenital anomaly. The most frequently reported class of congenital anomalies on the birth certificate was musculoskeletal/integumental anomalies, which were reported on 0.4 percent of birth certificates.

Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight

There were 28,649 low birth weight (<2,500 grams) infants born to Texas residents in 2002, which is 7.7 percent of live births (Table E). The rate was 7.4 percent in 2000 and 7.6 percent in 2001. Since 1992, low birth weight infants have increased from 7.0 percent to 7.7 percent of live births.

The risk of giving birth to a low birth weight infant remains much higher for black mothers (12.7 percent) than for Hispanic mothers (7.0 percent) or white mothers (7.1 percent). The incidence of low birth weight infants is higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. In 2002, 13.0 percent of births to mothers ages 14 and younger and 11.3 percent of births to mothers ages 40 and older were low birth weight.

A total of 4,976 births (1.3 percent of live births) were very low birth weight (<1,500 grams). This rate is unchanged from 2001. As with low birth weight, the risk of having a very low birth weight infant was highest for black mothers, and for the youngest and oldest mothers. The percentage of births to women 40 and over is up from 2001, when 1.7 percent of the women in that age group gave birth to very low birth weight infants.

Table E.1. Low birth weight and very low birth weight,
by mother's race/ethnicity; Texas Residents, 2002

Very Low Birth Weight
(<1,500 grams)
Low Birth Weight
(<2,500 grams)
Race/
Ethnicity
Number of
Births
Percent of
Births
Number of
Births
Percent of
Births
White* 1,714 1.1 10,860 7.1
Black 1,160 2.8 5,288 12.7
Hispanic 2,102 1.2 12,501 7.0
All Races 4,976 1.3 28,649 7.7
  • * Includes women of other and unknown race/ethnicity.


Table E.2. Low birth weight and very low birth weight, by mother's age; Texas residents, 2002

Very Low Birth Weight
(<1,500 grams)
Low Birth Weight
(<2,500 grams)
Age Number of
Births
Percent of
Births
Number of
Births
Percent of
Births
10-14 32 3.2 131 13.0
15-19 816 1.6 4,693 9.0
20-24 1,303 1.2 7,971 7.5
25-29 1,157 1.2 6,636 6.8
30-34 971 1.3 5,545 7.4
35-39 548 1.7 2,892 9.0
40+ 145 2.1 776 11.3
Unknown 4 12.1 5 15.2
Total 4,976 1.3 28,649 7.7

Other Birth Characteristics

In 2002, male infants accounted for 51.1 percent of all births (190,162) and female infants accounted for 48.9 percent (182,207). The majority of all births were either first children (37.9 percent) or second children (30.6 percent). Third children accounted for 17.4 percent of all births, fourth children 7.0 percent, and fifth children 2.5 percent.

There were 361,767 singleton births, accounting for 97.2 percent of all births. Twin births accounted for 2.7 percent of all births, with approximately 10,127 sets of twins born. In addition, there were approximately 443 sets of triplets, 24 sets of quadruplets, 5 sets of quituplets, and one set of septuplets.


 

  1. Kogan MD, Martin JA, Alexander GR, Kotelchuck M, Ventura SJ, Frigoletto FD. The changing pattern of prenatal care utilization in the United States, 1981-1995, using different prenatal care indices. JAMA, 279:1623-1628.
  2. Alexander GR, Kotelchuck M. Quantifying the adequacy of prenatal care: a comparison of indices. Public Health Rep 1996 Sep-Oct;111(5):408-18.
  3. http://www.health.gov/healthypeople/Document/html/Volume2/16MICH.htm#_Toc494699663; http://www.health.gov/healthypeople/Document/html/tracking/od16.htm#prenatalcare.

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Last updated May 19, 2010