In 2003, HHS Secretary Tommy Thompson approved the revision to the US Standard Certificates of Death and Fetal Death and encouraged all states to adopt them. The process involved in this revision, as well as details of what was revised, can be found at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/vital_certificate_revisions.htm.
Texas adopted the new US Standard Certificates of Death and Fetal Death in 2006. This revision includes changes to items such as alcohol use, race/ethnicity, etc. For details regarding race/ethnicity computation, see Table 44.
A total of 156,525 Texas residents died in 2006. The leading cause of death, diseases of the heart, accounted for 24.6 percent of those deaths, while the second most common cause of death, malignant neoplasms (cancer), accounted for 22.2 percent. Cerebrovascular diseases, accidents, and chronic lower respiratory diseases, ranked third, fourth, and fifth, respectively. Together, these five leading causes of death represented 63.4 percent of all deaths in 2006.
The number of infant deaths decreased to 2,476 deaths in 2006 compared to 2,515 deaths in 2005. The infant mortality rate decreased to 6.2 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. Fetal deaths increased from 2,297 in 2005 to 2,382 in 2006 for a fetal death ratio of 6.0 fetal deaths per 1,000 live births for both years. Ninety women died in 2006 as a result of pregnancy or childbearing for a maternal mortality rate of 22.5 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.
Years of potential life lost (YPLL), a measure of premature mortality, is the sum of years lost by persons who die before age 65 (see Technical Appendix). The YPLL by Texans increased from 907,503 in 2005 to 916,648 in 2006. Accidents, malignant neoplasms, and heart disease continued to be the top three causes of premature mortality in Texas.
Leading Causes of Death
The order of the top three leading causes of death has remained the same since 1979. Heart disease claimed 38,487 lives (39,996 in 2005) and continued to be the leading cause of death followed by malignant neoplasms (cancer) with 34,776 deaths (34,197 in 2005). Diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms have been the first and second leading causes of death in Texas and the nation since 1950.
Cerebrovascular diseases ranked third with 9,332 deaths, compared to 9,342 in 2005. The top three leading causes of death, diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular diseases, accounted for 52.8 percent of all Texas resident deaths in 2006. Accidents with adverse effects with 9,006 deaths (8,504 in 2005) and chronic lower respiratory diseases with 7,599 deaths (7,962 in 2005) rounded out the top five leading causes of death.
The sixth leading cause was diabetes mellitus with 5,180 deaths in 2006 (5,593 in 2005) and the number of deaths due to Alzheimer's disease was 4,880 in 2006 (4,612 in 2005). Influenza and pneumonia was the eighth leading cause with 3,325 deaths in 2006. Nephritis and related diseases were the ninth leading cause with 2,967 deaths in 2006. Septicemia was the tenth leading cause with 2,649 deaths in 2006.
Although homicide is no longer one of the ten leading causes of death among all Texas residents, it is the eigth leading cause among blacks and the tenth leading cause among Hispanics. (See Table 16 for the leading causes of death by race/ethnicity.) For details regarding race/ethnicity computation, see Table 44.
The majority of deaths (31.4 percent) in 2006 to residents ages 1 through 44 were due to accidents. Malignant neoplasms were responsible for 11.2 percent of all deaths to this age group and diseases of the heart claimed the lives of another 9.3 percent.
Beginning at age 45, accidents play a less significant role in total deaths; only 10.2 percent of all deaths to individuals 45-54 were due to accidents. However, diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms were responsible for 46.9 percent of the deaths to this age group. Deaths due to chronic conditions (diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus) were the major causes of death in individuals 55 years and older, accounting for 66.5 percent of deaths to this age group.
Although males represented half (50.0 percent) of the Texas population in 2006, they accounted for 59.9 percent of all deaths to persons 1 through 74 years of age. Much of this difference is due to the greater likelihood of males dying at younger ages from external causes (such as accidents, homicide, and suicide) and HIV infection (see Table 17).
There were 2,476 infant deaths to Texas residents in 2006 for an infant mortality rate of 6.2 infant deaths per 1,000 live births (see Table 29). The black infant mortality rate (12.3) continued to be considerably greater than the rate of whites (5.4) and Hispanics (5.4).
Congenital anomalies were responsible for 21.5 percent of all infant deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) claimed another 9.8 percent. Disorders related to length of gestation and fetal malnutrition claimed 13.3 percent of infant deaths and accidents claimed 4.4 percent of infant deaths. (See Table 31 for the selected causes of infant death among Texas residents.)
The majority (1,580; 63.8 percent) of infant deaths took place during the first 27 days of life (neonatal period), and the rate of neonatal deaths in Texas was 4.0 per 1,000 live births (see Table 30). Of all neonatal deaths, 25.2 percent were due to congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities. Disorders relating to length of gestation and fetal malnutrition also accounted for 20.2 percent of all neonatal deaths. (See Table 32 for the selected causes of neonatal death among Texas residents).
Fetal Deaths and Perinatal Mortality
In Texas, a fetal death is the death of a product of conception before complete expulsion or extraction from its mother. It is required to be registered with the Vital Statistics Unit as a fetal death for any fetus weighing 350 grams or more, or if the weight is unknown, a fetus aged 20 weeks or more. However, all reported fetal deaths, regardless of weight or length of gestation, are included in this annual report. There were 2,382 fetal deaths to Texas residents in 2006. The fetal death ratio was 6.0 fetal deaths per 1,000 live births in 2006, which was the same as in 2005.
Perinatal mortality includes fetal and neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 9.5
per 1,000 fetal deaths and live births in 2006 (9.6 in 2005). (See Table 28 for fetal and perinatal mortality figures.)
In 2006, 90 women died as a result of pregnancy or childbearing, for a maternal mortality rate of 22.5 per 100,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate for black women of 65.4 continues to be more than double the state value. White (excluding Other) and Hispanic women had maternal mortality rates of 15.9 and 18.2, respectively. However, rates based on small numbers may be misleading (see Technical Appendix).
Life Expectancy at Birth
Texans born in 2006 had a life expectancy at birth of 77.7 years. Because males tend to die from more external causes (such as accidents, homicide, and suicide) and at younger ages than females, females had a higher life expectancy at birth than males: 80.1 years vs. 75.2. An Hispanic child born in 2006 had a life expectancy at birth of 79.0 years, while a white newborn had a life expectancy of 77.9 years. Black life expectancy remained below the average, at 73.4 years (see Table 25).
Age-Adjusted Death Rate
The age-adjusted death rate for Texas in 2006 was 805.1 deaths per 100,000 population. The age-adjusted death rate for males was 936.6 in 2006 and the rate for females was 695.9. The age-adjusted death rate for whites and others, regardless of gender, was 816.6 deaths per 100,000 population. The Hispanic rate of 671.6 remained the lowest of all racial/ethnic groups in 2006. The age-adjusted death rate for blacks continued to be well above the rate for the Texas population as a whole at 1,014.7 per 100,000 population (see Table 26A).
Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL)
The YPLL statistic is a way to demonstrate both gender and race/ethnicity differences in mortality risks and is the sum of years lost by persons who die before the age of 65 (see Technical Appendix). The total YPLL for Texans in 2006 was 916,648 years, up from 907,503 years in 2005. Male mortality accounted for 581,391 or 63.3 percent of these years and the total YPLL for women was 336,257 or 36.7 percent. This difference is mostly due to males dying at younger ages than females from causes that are primarily external or preventable in nature, such as accidents and HIV infection.
Death by accident was the number one cause of premature mortality in 2006 and represented 193,104 YPLL, or 9.1 years per 1,000 persons ages 0-64. Malignant neoplasms were responsible for the second largest number of years lost with 130,097 YPLL, for a rate of 6.1. Heart disease had a rate of 4.8 and remained the third leading cause of YPLL in Texas, with 101,071 years of potential life lost. Certain Conditions Originating in the Perinatal Period was the fourth leading cause of premature mortality with 74,463 YPLL, with a rate of 3.5. The number of years lost from suicide and homicide were the fifth and sixth leading cause of premature mortality in Texas with YPLLs of 50,767 and 47,067 respectively (or 2.4 and 2.2 years per 1,000 persons ages 0-64 respectively).
2006 Annual Report Table of Contents
Annual Reports for Other Years
Center for Health Statistics