A total of 152,526 Texas residents died in 2001. The leading cause of death, diseases of the heart, accounted for 28.3 percent of those deaths, while the second most common cause of death, malignant neoplasms (cancer), accounted for 21.9 percent. Cerebrovascular diseases, accidents, and chronic lower respiratory diseases, ranked third, fourth, and fifth, respectively. Together, these five leading causes of death represented 67.3 percent of all deaths in 2001.
The number of infant deaths increased to 2,181 deaths in 2001 compared to 2,064 deaths in 2000. The infant mortality rate increased to 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births. Fetal deaths increased from 2,150 in 2000 to 2,315 in 2001 for a fetal death ratio of 6.3 fetal deaths per 1,000 live births. Forty women died in 2001 as a result of pregnancy or childbearing for a maternal mortality rate of 11.0 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.
Years of potential life lost (YPLL), a measure of premature mortality, is the sum of years lost by persons who die before age 65 (see Technical Appendix). The YPLL by Texans increased from 837,826 in 2000 to 859,884 in 2001. Accidents, malignant neoplasms, and heart disease continued to be the top three causes of premature mortality in Texas.
In 1999, two major data-related changes affecting death events occurred. The set of codes for classifying deaths was changed from the ninth revision to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases. Also, a new population standard was used for age standardization (age adjustment) of death rates. The new standard is based on the year 2000 population and replaces use of the 1940 standard population.
Leading Causes of Death
The tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) was used to code causes of death that occurred during 2001. Though coding for major categories of death, such as leading causes, remained mostly the same as in the ninth revision (ICD-9), there were some changes. Differences between 1998 and 2001 death statistics may have been due to actual changes in death occurrence or may partially have been due to changes in coding procedures. The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) provides in depth information about this change in ICD coding revisions at their Internet site: www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/dvs/mortdata.htm.
The order of the top three leading causes of death has remained the same since 1979. Heart disease claimed 43,100 lives (42,968 in 2000) and continued to be the leading cause of death followed by malignant neoplasms (cancer) with 33,437 deaths (33,298 in 2000). Diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms have been the first and second leading causes of death in Texas and the nation since 1950.
Cerebrovascular diseases ranked third with 10,596 deaths, compared to 10,721 in 2000. The top three leading causes of death, diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, and cerebrovascular disease, accounted for 57.1 percent of all Texas resident deaths in 2001. Accidents and adverse effects with 7,854 deaths (7,602 in 2000) and chronic lower respiratory diseases with 7,735 deaths (7,284 in 2000) rounded out the top five leading causes of death.
The sixth leading cause was diabetes mellitus with 5,445 deaths in 2001 (5,195 in 2000) and the number of deaths due to pneumonia and influenza was 3,597 in 2001 (3,708 in 2000). Unlike ICD-9, ICD-10 includes Alzheimer's disease as a leading cause category; it was the eighth leading cause with 3,436 deaths in 2001. Nephritis and related diseases was the ninth leading cause with 2,268 deaths in 2001. Suicide was the tenth leading cause with 2,214 deaths in 2001.
Although homicide is no longer one of the ten leading causes of death among all Texas residents, it is the seventh and eighth leading cause among Hispanics and blacks. (See Table 16 for the leading causes of death by race/ethnicity.)
The majority of deaths (29.4 percent) in 2001 to residents ages 1 through 44 were due to accidents and adverse effects. Malignant neoplasms were responsible for 13.1 percent of all deaths to this age group and diseases of the heart claimed the lives of another 10.2 percent.
Beginning at age 45, accidents play a less significant role in total deaths; only 8.6 percent of all deaths to individuals 45-54 were due to accidents. However, diseases of the heart and malignant neoplasms were responsible for 50.9 percent of the deaths to this age group. Deaths due to chronic conditions (diseases of the heart, malignant neoplasms, cerebrovascular diseases, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and diabetes mellitus) were the major causes of death in individuals 55 years and older, accounting for more than 71.7 percent of deaths to this age group.
Although males represented slightly less than half (49.7 percent) of the Texas population in 2001, they accounted for 60.3% of all deaths to persons under 75 years of age. Much of this difference is due to the greater likelihood of males dying at younger ages from external causes (such as accidents, homicide, and suicide) and HIV infection (see Table 17).
There were 2,181 infant deaths to Texas residents in 2001 for an infant mortality rate of 6.0 infant deaths per 1,000 live births (see Table 29). The black infant mortality rate (12.0) continued to be considerably greater than the rate of whites (5.2) and Hispanics (5.4).
Congenital anomalies were responsible for 23.3 percent of all infant deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) claimed another 8.0 percent. Disorders related to length of gestation and fetal malnutrition claimed 12.0 percent of infant deaths and accidents claimed 4.9 percent of infant deaths. (See Table 31 for the selected causes of infant death among Texas residents.)
The majority (1,356; 62.2 percent) of infant deaths took place during the first 27 days of life (neonatal period), and the rate of neonatal deaths in Texas was 3.7 per 1,000 live births (see Table 30). Of all neonatal deaths, 26.1 percent were due to congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities, while 18.8 percent were due to disorders relating to length of gestation and fetal malnutrition. (See Table 32 for the selected causes of neonatal death among Texas residents).
Fetal Deaths and Perinatal Mortality
In Texas, a fetal death is the death of a product of conception before complete expulsion or extraction from its mother. It is required to be registered with the Bureau of Vital Statistics as a fetal death if the length of gestation is 20 weeks or more. However, all reported fetal deaths, regardless of the length of gestation, are included in this annual report. There were 2,315 fetal deaths to Texas residents in 2001 and the fetal death ratio was 6.3 fetal deaths per 1,000 live births in 2001 compared to 5.9 in 2000.
Perinatal mortality includes all reported fetal and neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 9.7 per 1,000 fetal deaths and live births in 2001 (8.9 in 2000). (See Table 28 for fetal and perinatal mortality figures.)
In 2001, 40 women died as a result of pregnancy or childbearing, for a maternal mortality rate of 11.0 per 100,000 live births. The maternal mortality rate for black women of 27.1 continues to be more than double the state value. White and Hispanic women had maternal mortality rates of 9.3 and 7.6, respectively. However, rates based on small numbers may be misleading (see Technical Appendix).
Life Expectancy at Birth
Texans born in 2001 had a life expectancy at birth of 76.8 years. Because males tend to die from more external causes (such as accidents, homicide, and suicide) and at younger ages than females, females had a higher life expectancy at birth than males: 79.6 years vs. 74.0. An Hispanic child born in 2001 had a life expectancy at birth of 78.0 years, while a white child had a life expectancy of 77.3 years. Black life expectancy remained below the average, at 71.8 years (see Table 25).
Age-Adjusted Death Rate
The year 2000 standard population was used for age-adjusting death rates beginning with 1999 data. The changing age distribution of Texas' population and the ability to compare Texas rates to those for other areas were reasons for changing to the year 2000 standard population. In general, age-adjusted rates based on the year 2000 standard population will be higher than comparable rates for previous years that were based on the 1940 standard population. Further information about the implications of changing population standards for age-adjusting death rates can be found at NCHS' Internet site: www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/dvs/mortdata.htm
The age-adjusted death rate for Texas in 2001 was 887.5 deaths per 100,000 population. The age-adjusted death rate for males was 1,027.2 in 2001 and the rate for females was 772.4. The age-adjusted death rate for whites and others, regardless of gender, was 878.3 deaths per 100,000 population. The Hispanic rate of 756.8 remained the lowest of all racial/ethnic groups in 2001. The age-adjusted death rate for blacks continued to be well above the rate for the Texas population as a whole at 1,187.6 per 100,000 population (see Table 26A).
Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL)
The YPLL statistic is a way to demonstrate both gender and race/ethnicity differences in mortality risks and is the sum of years lost by persons who die before the age of 65 (see Technical Appendix). The total YPLL for Texans in 2001 was 859,884 years, up from 837,826 years in 2000. Male mortality accounted for 554,485 or 64.5 percent of these years and the total YPLL for women was 305,400 or 35.5 percent. This difference is mostly due to males dying at younger ages than females from causes that are primarily external or preventable in nature, such as accidents and HIV infection.
Death by accident was the number one cause of premature mortality in 2001 and represented 177,359 YPLL, or 9.3 years per 1,000 persons ages 0-64. Malignant neoplasms were responsible for the second largest number of years lost with 129,897 YPLL, for a rate of 6.8. Heart disease had a rate of 5.4 and remained the third leading cause of YPLL in Texas, with 103,816 years of potential life lost. Certain Conditions Originating in the Perinatal Period was the fourth leading cause of premature mortality with 62,372 YPLL, with a rate of 3.3. The number of years lost from suicide and homicide remained the fifth and sixth leading cause of premature mortality in Texas with a combined 94,762 YPLL for a rate of 5.0 years per 1,000 persons ages 0-64.
2001 Annual Report Table of Contents
Annual Reports for Other Years
Center for Health Statistics