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    Infectious Disease Control Unit
    Mail Code: 1960
    PO BOX 149347 - Austin, TX 78714-9347
    1100 West 49th Street, Suite T801
    Austin, TX 78714

    Phone: 512 776 7676
    Fax: (512) 776-7616


    E-mail

week 15

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Surveillance

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Influenza Influenza
(Flu)
ICD-9 487; ICD-10 J10,11
Related Topics: Protecting Yourself During the Cold and Flu Season, Avian Flu, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Asthma and SARS

2008 - 2009 Texas Influenza Surveillance Information

Influenza Surveillance Report for MMWR Week 15

The influenza (flu) activity level for Texas for the week ending April 18, 2009 was “local.” During week 15, one (0.4%) specimen tested by NREVSS laboratories in Texas was positive for influenza. The percentage of visits for influenza-like illness as reported by ILINet providers in Texas was below the regional baseline.

 

Reports from Health Service Regions

Reports were received from all Health Service Regions (HSRs) for week 15. HSRs 4/5N and 6/5S reported the same level of flu activity compared to week 14. All other HSRs reported a decreased level of flu activity compared to week 14. For a map of Health Service Regions, please visit the following website:

 

http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/regions/state.shtm

 

Laboratory Results

During week 15, six hospital laboratories and public health agencies across Texas reported conducting a total of 263 influenza tests (antigen, culture, and PCR) to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSSnew window) sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Of the 211 antigen detection tests that were performed, one specimen from Harris County was positive for influenza A/not subtyped. No positive PCR test results were reported during week 15. Two reports of culture-confirmed seasonal influenza were received from public health laboratories in Austin and Houston. The specimens were submitted from Harris and Lubbock counties, and both were positive for influenza B. Positive point-of-care rapid tests for influenza were reported by providers throughout the state (see county map below).

 

 

Novel Influenza A Virus Infections

Two novel influenza A virus infections in Texas residents were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during week 15. These infections were reported in two 16-year-old residents of Guadalupe County; their onsets of symptoms occurred during week 14 (week ending April 11, 2009) and week 15 (week ending April 18, 2009), respectively. The specimens were collected and the viruses identified through routine influenza surveillance activities; the isolates were further identified by CDC as swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses. Thorough case and contact investigations are ongoing. Please see http://www.cdc.gov/flu/swine/ for more information on the current investigation.

 

 

Antigenic Characterization

CDC has reported antigenic characterization results from 48 influenza isolates [20 influenza A/H1, 6 influenza A/H3, and 22 influenza B viruses] received from the DSHS Laboratory since the beginning of the 2008–09 flu season.

 

Influenza A/H1 [20]

  • All 20 viruses were characterized as A/Brisbane/59/2007, the influenza A/H1 component of the 2008–09 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.
Influenza A/H3 [6]
  • All 6 viruses were characterized as A/Brisbane/10/2007, the influenza A/H3 component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.
Influenza B (B/Victoria/02/87 and B/Yamagata/16/88 lineages) [22]
    Victoria lineage [15]
  • Fifteen of the influenza B viruses were characterized as belonging to the B/Victoria lineage.
    Yamagata lineage [7]
  • Seven viruses were characterized as B/Florida/4/2006, the influenza B component for the 2008-09 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.

 

 

Antiviral Resistance

Since September 28, 2008, 21 seasonal influenza A/H1 isolates, 6 influenza A/H3 isolates, and 21 influenza B isolates from the DSHS laboratory have been tested by CDC for antiviral resistance.

 

  Isolates Tested (n) Resistant Viruses,
Number (%)
Isolates Tested (n) Resistant Viruses,
Number (%)
Oseltamivir Zanamivir Adamantanes
Influenza A/H1 21 21 (100%) 0 (0) 21 0 (0)
Influenza A/H3 6 0 (0) 0 (0) 6 6 (100%)
Influenza B 21 0 (0) 0 (0) N/A* N/A*
                                     *Adamantanes are not effective against influenza B viruses.

CDC has issued interim recommendations for use of antiviral medications in the 2008-09 influenza season. Those recommendations are available at: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/antivirals/index.htm..

 

Influenza–Associated Pediatric Mortality

No influenza-associated pediatric fatalities were reported during week 15. Texas has reported ten influenza-associated pediatric fatalities during the 2008-09 influenza season.

 

 

School Closures and Institutional Outbreaks

No school closures or institutional outbreaks were reported in week 15.

 

 

U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network

Fifty-three providers in Texas reported data to the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) (formerly known as the U.S. Influenza Sentinel Provider Surveillance System) on patients with influenza–like illness (ILI) and total patients seen for any reason during week 15. Of the 52 providers who reported seeing patients during week 15, 18 (35%) saw at least one patient with ILI. Of all patient visits during this week, 1.83% were due to ILI. The ILI baseline for the West South Central Region (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas) of the United States is 4.8% for the 2008-2009 season. The baseline is the mean percentage of patient visits for ILI during non-influenza weeks for the previous three seasons plus two standard deviations.

 


Percentage of Visits for Influenza–Like Illness Reported by the US Outpatient Influenza–Like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) in Texas as of 4/24/2009 6:01:01 PM
Week # Reporting Age 0-4 Age 5-24 Age 25-64 Age over 64 Total ILI Total Patients % ILI
2008-40 78 84 133 127 22 366 20333 1.80
2008-41 78 114 163 124 19 420 20105 2.09
2008-42 79 107 156 90 7 360 19746 1.82
2008-43 79 120 152 106 20 398 19740 2.02
2008-44 80 136 199 103 26 464 20737 2.24
2008-45 78 110 111 122 27 370 20835 1.78
2008-46 73 110 106 103 23 342 19771 1.73
2008-47 75 137 143 122 19 421 19806 2.13
2008-48 79 131 132 125 37 425 16905 2.51
2008-49 77 143 159 153 24 479 20343 2.35
2008-50 75 133 146 108 28 415 19330 2.15
2008-51 69 172 177 175 24 548 17531 3.13
2008-52 76 194 153 154 34 535 13431 3.98
2008-53 77 176 141 165 46 528 15222 3.47
2009-01 78 162 182 188 38 570 18518 3.08
2009-02 77 178 287 235 41 741 20094 3.69
2009-03 78 174 468 341 43 1026 22951 4.47
2009-04 78 260 679 332 47 1318 24244 5.44
2009-05 73 282 883 465 40 1670 24590 6.79
2009-06 79 301 964 391 59 1715 24162 7.10
2009-07 79 320 814 316 57 1507 25873 5.82
2009-08 73 221 552 283 57 1113 24526 4.54
2009-09 76 194 422 244 71 931 22111 4.21
2009-10 79 221 324 212 77 834 22341 3.73
2009-11 74 167 268 178 58 671 19156 3.50
2009-12 68 109 150 179 18 456 19962 2.28
2009-13 67 114 141 163 16 434 17659 2.46
2009-14 68 158 192 232 51 633 18858 3.36
2009-15 53 57 104 132 19 312 17095 1.83


ILI Percentage in Texas Chart

 

ILI Data in Texas Chart

 

 

National Influenza Activity Map

The map showing influenza activity in the United States for MMWR week 15 is displayed below. The current U.S. flu weekly report may be found at: here.

 

 

Influenza in USA Map

*This map indicates geographic spread and does not measure the severity of influenza activity.

 

For more information on flu surveillance activities in the State of Texas, please visit our main surveillance page.




Texas Department of State Health Services - Infectious Disease Control Unit
1100 West 49th Street, Suite T801, Mail Code: 1960 PO BOX 149347 - Austin, TX 78714-9347
(512) 458-7676 - Fax: (512) 458-7616 - E-Mail

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Last updated May 19, 2010