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    Infectious Disease Control Unit
    Mail Code: 1960
    PO BOX 149347 - Austin, TX 78714-9347
    1100 West 49th Street, Suite T801
    Austin, TX 78714

    Phone: 512 776 7676
    Fax: (512) 776-7616


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Surveillance

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image1 Influenza
(Flu)
ICD-9 487; ICD-10 J10,11
Related Topics: Protecting Yourself During the Cold and Flu Season, Avian Flu, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Asthma and SARS

2008 - 2009 Texas Influenza Surveillance Information

Influenza Surveillance Report for MMWR Week 36

The influenza (flu) activity level for Texas for the week ending September 12, 2009 was “regional.” For definitions of flu activity levels please see http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/fluactivity.htm. During week 36, 400 (16.2%) specimens tested by NREVSS laboratories in Texas were positive for influenza. The percentage of visits for influenza-like illness as reported by ILINet providers in Texas increased during week 36 but still remained below the regional baseline.

Reports from Health Service Regions

Reports were received from all Health Service Regions (HSRs) for week 36. HSRs 1, 2/3, 4/5N, 6/5S, 7, 9/10, and 11 reported an increased level of flu activity compared to week 35. HSR 8 reported the same level of flu activity compared to week 35. For a map of Health Service Regions please visit the following website: www.dshs.state.tx.us/regions/state.shtm

Laboratory Results

During week 36, twelve hospital laboratories and public health agencies across Texas reported conducting a total of 2,475 influenza tests (antigen, culture, and PCR) to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS window_ext) sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The majority (71.5%) of tests reported to NREVSS were antigen detection tests; these tests cannot identify the subtype of influenza detected. The results from Texas participants in NREVSS are summarized in the table below.
Testing Information Week 36
No. of specimens tested 2,475
No. of positive specimens (%) 400 (16.2%)
Positive specimens by type/subtype
Influenza A 400 (100%)
A (novel H1N1) 11 (2.75%)
A (subtyping not performed) 389 (97.25%)
A (unable to subtype) 0 (0%)
A (H3) 0 (0%)
A (H1 seasonal) 0 (0%)
Influenza B 0 (0%)

Additional influenza test results (rapid tests, culture, PCR) were reported from providers and public health departments throughout the state (see county map below).

Novel Influenza A Virus Infections

Please see the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) novel influenza website (http://www.texasflu.org) and the CDC website (http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/) for more information. Data collection for confirmed novel influenza A/H1N1 hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths will begin in Texas on September 20, 2009.

Antigenic Characterization

CDC has reported antigenic characterization results from 51 seasonal influenza isolates [20 influenza A/H1, 8 influenza A/H3, and 23 influenza B viruses] and 4 novel influenza A H1N1 viruses received from the DSHS Laboratory since the beginning of the 2008–09 flu season. Other laboratories in Texas submit influenza isolates to CDC for testing, but those results were not available for this report.

Influenza A/H1 [20]

  • All 20 viruses were characterized as A/Brisbane/59/2007, the influenza A/H1 component of the 2008–09 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.
Influenza A/H3 [8]
  • All 8 viruses were characterized as A/Brisbane/10/2007, the influenza A/H3 component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.
Influenza B (B/Victoria/02/87 and B/Yamagata/16/88 lineages) [23]
    Victoria lineage [16]
  • Sixteen of the influenza B viruses were characterized as belonging to the B/Victoria lineage.
    Yamagata lineage [7]
  • Seven viruses were characterized as B/Florida/4/2006, the influenza B component for the 2008-09 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.
Novel influenza A/H1 [4]
  • All 4 viruses were characterized as A/California/07/2009-like (H1N1), the reference virus selected by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a candidate for the novel influenza A H1N1 vaccine.

Antiviral Resistance

Since September 28, 2008, 22 seasonal influenza A/H1N1 isolates, 8 influenza A/H3N2 isolates, 23 influenza B isolates, and 5 novel influenza A/H1N1 isolates from the DSHS laboratory have been tested by CDC for antiviral resistance. Other laboratories in Texas submit influenza isolates to CDC for testing, but those results were not available for this report.
Flu
Types/Subtypes
Isolates Tested (n) Resistant Viruses,
Number (%)
Isolates Tested (n) Resistant Viruses,
Number (%)
Oseltamivir Zanamivir Adamantanes
Influenza A/H1 (seasonal) 22 22 (100) 0 (0) 22 0 (0)
Influenza A/H3 8 0 (0) 0 (0) 7 7 (100)
Influenza B 23 0 (0) 0 (0) N/A* N/A*
Influenza A/H1 (novel)** Not available 2 (--) 0 (0) Not available -- (100)


*Adamantanes are not effective against influenza B viruses.

**Antiviral resistance testing is performed on a subset of Texas isolates at the CDC lab. The total number of novel influenza A/H1N1 isolates from Texas that have been tested for antiviral resistance is not available. Of all of the novel influenza A/H1N1 isolates from Texas that have been tested for antiviral resistance, only 2 have shown resistance to oseltamivir. No novel influenza A/H1N1 isolates have shown resistance to zanamivir. All novel influenza A/H1N1 isolates have shown resistance to the adamantanes.

CDC has issued interim recommendations for use of antiviral medications in the 2009-10 influenza season. Those recommendations are available at: http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/recommendations.htm.

Influenza–Associated Pediatric Mortality

No influenza-associated pediatric fatalities were reported during week 36. Texas has reported 15 influenza-associated pediatric fatalities during the 2008-09 influenza season.

School Closures and Institutional Outbreaks

An outbreak of novel influenza A/H1N1 was reported in a nursing home in Denton County during week 36. Another institutional outbreak of influenza (confirmed by rapid flu test) was reported in Cherokee County. DSHS has issued guidance for cases of ILI and novel influenza A H1N1 in summer camps, schools, and congregate facilities. Please see http://www.texasflu.org for more information.

U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network

Thirty-seven providers in Texas reported data to the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) (formerly known as the U.S. Influenza Sentinel Provider Surveillance System) on patients with influenza–like illness (ILI) and total patients seen for any reason during week 36. Of these 37 providers, 29 (78%) saw at least one patient with ILI. Of all patient visits during this week, 4.39% were due to ILI. The ILI baseline for HHS Region 6 (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) of the United States is 4.6% for the 2008-2009 season. The baseline is the mean percentage of patient visits for ILI during non-influenza weeks for the previous three seasons plus two standard deviations.
Percentage of Visits for Influenza–Like Illness Reported by the US Outpatient Influenza–Like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) in Texas as of 9/18/2009 11:11:36 AM
Week # Reporting Age 0-4 Age 5-24 Age 25-64 Age over 64 Total ILI Total Patients % ILI
2008-40 78 84 133 127 22 366 20333 1.80
2008-41 78 114 163 124 19 420 20105 2.09
2008-42 79 107 156 90 7 360 19746 1.82
2008-43 80 120 152 106 20 398 19857 2.00
2008-44 82 136 199 104 26 465 20972 2.22
2008-45 79 110 111 122 27 370 20959 1.77
2008-46 74 110 107 103 23 343 19890 1.72
2008-47 76 137 143 122 19 421 19907 2.11
2008-48 80 132 132 125 37 426 17012 2.50
2008-49 78 143 159 153 24 479 20446 2.34
2008-50 76 133 146 108 28 415 19450 2.13
2008-51 70 172 177 175 24 548 17663 3.10
2008-52 77 194 153 154 34 535 13509 3.96
2008-53 78 176 141 165 46 528 15329 3.44
2009-01 79 162 182 188 38 570 18646 3.06
2009-02 78 178 287 235 41 741 20222 3.66
2009-03 79 174 468 341 43 1026 23058 4.45
2009-04 79 260 679 333 47 1319 24350 5.42
2009-05 74 282 884 467 40 1673 24734 6.76
2009-06 80 301 965 392 59 1717 24320 7.06
2009-07 79 317 803 316 57 1493 25821 5.78
2009-08 74 221 552 283 57 1113 24664 4.51
2009-09 77 194 423 245 71 933 22428 4.16
2009-10 80 221 325 212 77 835 22635 3.69
2009-11 77 167 269 178 58 672 19656 3.42
2009-12 72 109 150 179 18 456 20910 2.18
2009-13 74 115 143 163 16 437 18760 2.33
2009-14 81 158 199 234 51 642 20963 3.06
2009-15 78 92 138 156 23 400 21254 1.92
2009-16 87 133 200 163 28 524 22058 2.38
2009-17 77 260 570 348 44 1222 25406 4.81
2009-18 72 200 361 185 31 777 22503 3.45
2009-19 65 125 253 183 24 585 19066 3.07
2009-20 63 122 255 134 7 518 19150 2.70
2009-21 64 115 221 111 31 478 17728 2.70
2009-22 61 108 188 88 14 398 18573 2.14
2009-23 55 79 103 29 9 220 10111 2.18
2009-24 53 65 119 79 4 267 16773 1.59
2009-25 59 72 114 79 15 280 16624 1.68
2009-26 59 68 105 75 13 261 15326 1.70
2009-27 58 72 90 72 15 249 16643 1.50
2009-28 61 44 102 78 15 238 17296 1.38
2009-29 59 67 101 73 14 255 16844 1.51
2009-30 54 25 41 23 11 100 9861 1.01
2009-31 57 55 91 83 9 238 17480 1.36
2009-32 53 54 108 76 9 247 17183 1.44
2009-33 50 46 107 124 13 290 18628 1.56
2009-34 49 73 266 94 3 436 18826 2.32
2009-35 44 117 415 83 5 620 19246 3.22
2009-36 37 71 558 150 10 789 17956 4.39


ILIPercentageChart14

National Influenza Activity Map

The current U.S. flu weekly report may be found at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/fluactivity.htm.
USMapweekly14

*This map indicates geographic spread and does not measure the severity of influenza activity.

For more information on flu surveillance activities in the State of Texas, please visit our main surveillance page.



flumap091209b

1Influenza activity level corresponds to current MMWR week only and does not reflect previous weeks' activity.
2The majority of influenza cases are not reportable by law to the Texas Department of State Health Services. This map contains data from sentinel sites and does not represent all influenza cases in the state.
3Positive laboratory results are reported according to specimen collection date or date received in the lab if the former is unknown.



Texas Department of State Health Services - Infectious Disease Control Unit
1100 West 49th Street, Suite T801, Mail Code: 1960 PO BOX 149347 - Austin, TX 78714-9347
(512) 458-7676 - Fax: (512) 458-7616 -

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Last updated January 10, 2011