To receive periodic library news via e-mail, HHS employees may join the e-mail list. For more information about items featured in the library news, contact the Medical and Research Library at firstname.lastname@example.org.
External links to other sites are intended to be informational and do not have the endorsement of the Texas Department of State Health Services. These sites may also not be accessible to people with disabilities. The links were working at the time they were created.
News and training opportunities
Keeneland 2014 Conference: April 7-10, 2014, Lexington, KY. Join researchers, practitioners and policymakers to discuss ways to improve the nation's public health system. http://www.publichealthsystems.org/keeneland-2014.aspx
Public Health Informatics Virtual Event (PHIVE) 2014: January 7-9, 2014, 11:30 AM - 4:30 PM EST each day. This meeting will feature over 20 sessions from informatics thought leaders across government, academia, key public and health care communities, and the private sector. https://cdc.6connex.com/portal/PHIVE/login
Public Health Systems Research Interest Group 2014 Meeting: June 10-11, 2014, San Diego, CA. The Public Health Systems Research Interest Group (PHSR IG) Meeting offers researchers the opportunity to disseminate their findings and provides policymakers and practitioners with information to make sound decisions to improve public health systems and practice. http://www.academyhealth.org/Events/events.cfm?ItemNumber=12430
Webinar: Use of The Guide to Community Preventive Services to Impact Healthy Aging: January 16, 2014, 1:30 -2:30 PM ET. The webinar will focus on how United Way of the Greater Lehigh Valley in Allentown, Pennsylvania uses The Guide to Community Preventive Services (The Community Guide) to influence their investments and community-level strategies to support older adults, including the launch of the Gatekeeper Program. UseoftheGuidetoCommunityPreventiveServicestoImpactHealthyAging
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Americans say cost is top health problem: Nearly one-quarter of Americans (23%) say cost is the most urgent health problem facing the U.S. today, a four-percentage-point increase since last year that has allowed it to surpass access as the most pressing issue. http://www.gallup.com/poll/165965/americans-say-cost-top-health-problem.aspx?utm_source=alert&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=syndication&utm_content=morelink&utm_term=Well-Being
CDC health disparities and inequalities report -- United States, 2013: The second CDC report to examine some of the key factors that affect health and lead to health disparities in the United States. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/ind2013_su.html#HealthDisparities2013
CDC releases new findings and prevention tools to improve food safety in restaurants: http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2013/p1202-food-safety-tools.html
Gene-silencing study finds new targets for Parkinson’s disease: NIH study sheds light on treatment of related disorders. http://www.nih.gov/news/health/nov2013/ninds-24.htm
Gut microbes may affect cancer treatment: The effectiveness of certain cancer therapies may depend on microbes that live in the intestine, according to a study in mice. The findings suggest that antibiotics might hinder the effects of cancer therapies. http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/december2013/12092013cancer.htm
Key HIV protein structure revealed: Researchers have developed a more detailed picture of the protein largely responsible for enabling HIV to enter human immune cells and cause infection. The findings could help guide vaccine design. http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/november2013/11252013HIV.htm
Matching treatments to your genes: You’re one of a kind. Wouldn’t it be nice if treatments and preventive care could be designed just for you, matched to your unique set of genes? http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/Dec2013/Feature1
Multivitamins may help fight HIV progression, study suggests: Supplements tested only on those who hadn't started medications. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_142892.html
New HIV strain may move to AIDS more quickly: Researchers say period from infection to disease takes about 5 years. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_143063.html
New report from PI and APHA helps local elected officials make the case for prevention: A new brief by the Prevention Institute and the American Public Health Association, "Championing Change: Elected Officials Act Locally to Make their Communities Healthier," examines the approaches local elected officials are taking to improve the health of their communities. http://preventioninstitute.org/component/jlibrary/article/id-346/127.html
Project Tycho data: The Project Tycho database aims are to advance the availability and use of public health data for science and policy. The site provides open access to newly digitized U.S. weekly surveillance data for contagious diseases from 1888 to the present for use in research, education, and policy making. http://www.tycho.pitt.edu/
Researchers identify genomic variant associated with sun sensitivity, freckles: NIH-funded work finds genetic switch for pigmentation trait in non-coding, regulatory region of newly associated gene. http://www.nih.gov/news/health/nov2013/nhgri-21.htm
Research probes Autism's origins in the brain: Two studies identify gene mutations that act together to disrupt the brain's wiring before birth. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_142759.html
Spatialepidemiology.net: Provides a map-based interface for the display and analysis of infectious disease epidemiological data, including molecular data, utilizing Google Maps and Google Earth. http://www.spatialepidemiology.net/
WHO MiNDbank is an online platform which brings together a range of country and international resources, covering mental health, substance abuse, disability, general health, human rights and development. These include policies, strategies, laws, and service standards. http://www.mindbank.info/
Interesting journal articles
Aspirin and colorectal cancer: back to the future [published online ahead of print December 10, 2013]. Tougeron D, Sha D, Manthravadi S, Sinicrope FA. Clin Cancer Res.
Abundant epidemiological evidence indicates that regular and long term use of aspirin is associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). The long duration of aspirin needed to prevent CRC is believed to be due to inhibition of precursor lesions known as adenomas, whose recurrence is inhibited by aspirin in randomized trials. Aspirin intake has also been associated with a statistically significant improvement in patient survival after curative resection of CRC in large observational studies. In these cohorts, the survival benefit of aspirin was shown to depend upon the level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the primary CRC. More recent analysis of patient tumors from these observational cohorts suggests that the benefit of aspirin may be limited to specific molecular subtypes. Aspirin intake following CRC resection was associated with a significant improvement of survival in patients whose tumors carried mutant, but not wild-type, copies of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3KCA) gene, especially tumors that overexpressed COX-2. A mechanistic explanation is suggested by the finding that inhibition of COX-mediated prostaglandin E2 synthesis by aspirin attenuates PI3K signaling activity that is known to regulate cancer cell proliferation and survival. Aspirin has also been shown to reduce the incidence of CRCs bearing wild-type, but not mutant alleles of the BRAFV600E oncogene. While provocative, the potential utility of these molecular markers for predicting aspirin efficacy awaits prospective evaluation in clinical trials. If validated, these finding may support a personalized approach to using aspirin for the therapy of CRC.
Deathbed shock: causes and cures [published online ahead of print November 25, 2013]. Butler K, Puri S. JAMA Intern Med. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.11125.
In this issue of JAMA Internal Medicine, Buchhalter and colleagues eloquently illustrate the current lack of patient involvement in planning for potential deactivation of cardiac devices in life’s final chapter.
Do healthier foods and diet patterns cost more than less healthy options? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rao M, Afshin A, Singh G, Mozaffarian D. BMJ Open. 2013;3(12):e004277.
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prices of healthier versus less healthy foods/diet patterns while accounting for key sources of heterogeneity. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (2000-2011), supplemented with expert consultations and hand reviews of reference lists and related citations. DESIGN: Studies reviewed independently and in duplicate were included if reporting mean retail price of foods or diet patterns stratified by healthfulness. We extracted, in duplicate, mean prices and their uncertainties of healthier and less healthy foods/diet patterns and rated the intensity of health differences for each comparison (range 1-10). Prices were adjusted for inflation and the World Bank purchasing power parity, and standardised to the international dollar (defined as US$1) in 2011. Using random effects models, we quantified price differences of healthier versus less healthy options for specific food types, diet patterns and units of price (serving, day and calorie). Statistical heterogeneity was quantified using I(2) statistics. RESULTS: 27 studies from 10 countries met the inclusion criteria. Among food groups, meats/protein had largest price differences: healthier options cost $0.29/serving (95% CI $0.19 to $0.40) and $0.47/200 kcal ($0.42 to $0.53) more than less healthy options. Price differences per serving for healthier versus less healthy foods were smaller among grains ($0.03), dairy (-$0.004), snacks/sweets ($0.12) and fats/oils ($0.02; p<0.05 each) and not significant for soda/juice ($0.11, p=0.64). Comparing extremes (top vs bottom quantile) of food-based diet patterns, healthier diets cost $1.48/day ($1.01 to $1.95) and $1.54/2000 kcal ($1.15 to $1.94) more. Comparing nutrient-based patterns, price per day was not significantly different (top vs bottom quantile: $0.04; p=0.916), whereas price per 2000 kcal was $1.56 ($0.61 to $2.51) more. Adjustment for intensity of differences in healthfulness yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides the best evidence until today of price differences of healthier vs less healthy foods/diet patterns, highlighting the challenges and opportunities for reducing financial barriers to healthy eating.
The harms of screening: a proposed taxonomy and application to lung cancer screening [published online ahead of print December 9, 2013]. Harris RP, Sheridan SL, Lewis CL, et al. JAMA Intern Med. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.12745.
IMPORTANCE Making rational decisions about screening requires information about its harms, but high-quality evidence is often either not available or not used. One reason may be that we lack a coherent framework, a taxonomy, for conceptualizing and studying these harms. OBJECTIVE To create a taxonomy, we categorized harms from several sources: systematic reviews of screening, other published literature, and informal discussions with clinicians and patients. We used this information to develop an initial taxonomy and vetted it with local and national experts, making revisions as needed. RESULTS We propose a taxonomy with 4 domains of harm from screening: physical effects, psychological effects, financial strain, and opportunity costs. Harms can occur at any step of the screening cascade. We provide definitions for each harm domain and illustrate the taxonomy using the example of screening for lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The taxonomy provides a systematic way to conceptualize harms as experienced by patients. As shown in the lung cancer screening example, the taxonomy also makes clear where (which domains of harms and which parts of the screening cascade) we have useful information and where there are gaps in our knowledge. The taxonomy needs further testing and validation across a broad range of screening programs. We hope that further development of this taxonomy can improve our thinking about the harms of screening, thus informing our research, policy making, and decision making with patients about the wisdom of screening.
Maternal obesity and risk of Down syndrome in the offspring [published online ahead of print December 10, 2013]. Hildebrand E, Källén B, Josefsson A, Gottvall T, Blomberg M. Prenat Diagn. doi: 10.1002/pd.4294.
OBJECTIVE: To determine if maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of Down syndrome in the offspring and whether the risk estimates for trisomy 21 based on combined screening is affected by maternal Body Mass Index (BMI). METHOD: Study group I consisted of a Nation-wide cohort of 1,568,604 women giving birth; outcome was infants born with Down syndrome. Adjustment was made for maternal age. Study group II consisted of 10,224 women undergoing 1st trimester combined screening. Outcome was risk assessment for Down syndrome. All women were divided into six BMI groups and outcomes were evaluated over the BMI strata with BMI 18.5-24.9 as reference and correcting for maternal age. RESULTS: Obese women had an increased risk for giving birth to an infant with Down syndrome compared to normal weight women, BMI 30-34.9 OR 1.31 (95% CI 1.10-1.55), BMI 35-39.9 OR 1.12 (95%CI 0.82-1.53), BMI ≥ 40 OR 1.56 (95%CI 1.00-2.43). The observed and the expected numbers of women with a risk of Down syndrome >1/300 based on 1st trimester combined screen and maternal age were similar in each BMI group. CONCLUSION: Maternal obesity seems to increase the risk for Down syndrome births. The risk estimate for Down syndrome with 1st trimester combined screening is unaffected by BMI.
Parental factors associated with depression and anxiety in young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print November 18, 2013]. Yap MB, Pilkington PD, Ryan SM, Jorm AF. J Affect Disord. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.11.007.
BACKGROUND: There is a burgeoning and varied literature examining the associations between parental factors and depression or anxiety disorders in young people. However, there is hitherto no systematic review of this complex literature with a focus on the 12-18 years age range, when the first onset for these disorders peaks. Furthermore, to facilitate the application of the evidence in prevention, a focus on modifiable factors is required. METHODS: Employing the PRISMA method, we conducted a systematic review of parental factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders in young people which parents can potentially modify. RESULTS: We identified 181 articles altogether, with 140 examining depression, 17 examining anxiety problems, and 24 examining both outcomes. Stouffer's method of combining p values was used to determine whether associations between variables were reliable, and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the mean effect sizes of associations between each parental factor and outcome. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include sacrificing micro-level detail for a macro-level synthesis of the literature, not systematically reviewing moderators and mediators, the lack of generalizability across cultures and to younger or adult children, and the inability to conduct a meta-analysis on all included studies. CONCLUSIONS: Parental factors with a sound evidence base indicating increased risk for both depression and anxiety include less warmth, more inter-parental conflict, over-involvement, and aversiveness; and for depression additionally, they include less autonomy granting and monitoring.
Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment and later mental health in children and adolescents. Khalife N, Glover V, Taanila A, Ebeling H, Järvelin MR, Rodriguez A. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 22;8(11):e81394.
BACKGROUND: Animal studies demonstrate a clear link between prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids (GC) and altered offspring brain development. We aim to examine whether prenatal GC exposure programs long-term mental health in humans. METHODS: Using propensity-score-matching, children prenatally exposed to synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC), n=37, and controls, n=185, were balanced on important confounders related to sGC treatment - gestational age and pre-pregnancy BMI. We also used mixed-effects modeling to analyse the entire cohort - matching each sGC case, n=37, to all possible controls, n=6079, on gestational age and sex. We obtained data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 at four waves - pregnancy, birth, 8 and 16 years. Data on pregnancy and birth outcomes came from medical records. Mental health was assessed at 8 years by teachers with the Rutter B2 scale, and at 16 years by parents with the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal behavior (SWAN) scale and adolescents by the Youth Self-Report (YSR) scale. RESULTS: Prenatal sGC treatment was consistently associated with adverse mental health in childhood and adolescence, as shown by both the propensity-score method and mixed-effects model. Using the propensity-score-matched subsample, linear multiple regression showed prenatal sGC was significantly linked with general psychiatric disturbance (B=8.34 [95% CI: .23-16.45]) and inattention (B= .97 [95% CI: .16-1.80]) at 8 years after control for relevant confounders. Similar findings were obtained at 16 years, but did not reach statistical significance. Mediation by birthweight/placental weight was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to prospectively investigate the long-term associations between prenatal exposure to sGC treatment and mental health in children and adolescents. We report an association between prenatal exposure to sGC and child mental health, supportive of the idea that sGC has a programming effect on the fetal brain.
Services for adolescents with psychiatric disorders: 12-month data from the national comorbidity survey-adolescent [published online ahead of print November 15, 2013]. Costello EJ, He JP, Sampson NA, Kessler RC, Merikangas KR. Psychiatr Serv. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201100518.
OBJECTIVE This study examined 12-month rates of service use for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among adolescents. METHODS Data were from the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a survey of DSM-IV mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders and service use. RESULTS In the past 12 months, 45.0% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders received some form of service. The most likely were those with ADHD (73.8%), conduct disorder (73.4%), or oppositional defiant disorder (71.0%). Least likely were those with specific phobias (40.7%) and any anxiety disorder (41.4%). Among those with any disorder, services were more likely to be received in a school setting (23.6%) or in a specialty mental health setting (22.8%) than in a general medical setting (10.1%). Youths with any disorder also received services in juvenile justice settings (4.5%), complementary and alternative medicine (5.3%), and human services settings (7.9%). Although general medical providers treated a larger proportion of youths with mood disorders than with behavior disorders, they were more likely to treat youths with behavior disorders because of the larger number of the latter (11.5% of 1,465 versus 13.9% of 820). Black youths were significantly less likely than white youths to receive specialty mental health or general medical services for mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS Findings from this analysis of NCS-A data confirm those of earlier, smaller studies, that only a minority of youths with psychiatric disorders receive treatment of any sort. Much of this treatment was provided in service settings in which few providers were likely to have specialist mental health training.
Targeting a dual detector of skin and CO2 to modify mosquito host seeking. Tauxe GM, Macwilliam D, Boyle SM, Guda T, Ray A. Cell. 2013 Dec 5;155(6):1365-79.
Female mosquitoes that transmit deadly diseases locate human hosts by detecting exhaled CO2 and skin odor. The identities of olfactory neurons and receptors required for attraction to skin odor remain a mystery. Here, we show that the CO2-sensitive olfactory neuron is also a sensitive detector of human skin odorants in both Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae. We demonstrate that activity of this neuron is important for attraction to skin odor, establishing it as a key target for intervention. We screen ∼0.5 million compounds in silico and identify several CO2 receptor ligands, including an antagonist that reduces attraction to skin and an agonist that lures mosquitoes to traps as effectively as CO2. Analysis of the CO2 receptor ligand space provides a foundation for understanding mosquito host-seeking behavior and identifies odors that are potentially safe, pleasant, and affordable for use in a new generation of mosquito control strategies worldwide.
Vigorous intensity exercise for glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. Yardley J, Mollard R, Macintosh A, et al. Can J Diabetes. 2013 Dec;37(6):427-32.
Regular physical activity has substantial health benefits in persons with type 1 diabetes, including reduced risk of complications and cardiovascular mortality as well as improved self-rated quality of life. Despite these benefits, individuals with type 1 diabetes are often less active than their peers without diabetes. When factors such as time constraints, work pressure and environmental conditions are often cited as barriers to physical activity in the general population, 2 additional major factors may also explain the low rates of physical activity in young people with type 1 diabetes: (1) fear of hypoglycemia both during and after (particularly overnight) exercise and (2) a lack of empiric evidence for the efficacy of physical activity for achieving optimal glycemic control. A number of acute exercise trials recently showed that the inclusion of vigorous intensity physical activity in conventional moderate intensity (i.e. walking and light cycling) exercise sessions may overcome these barriers. No studies have tested the efficacy of high-intensity physical activity on glycemic control (A1C) or post-exercise hypoglycemia in a randomized controlled trial. This article summarizes the literature related to the role of physical activity for the management of blood glucose levels in individuals with type 1 diabetes and provides a rationale for the need of a randomized controlled trial examining the effects of vigorous-intensity physical activity on blood glucose control.
Engaging government employees: motivate and inspire your people to achieve superior performance. Lavigna, RJ. New York : American Management Association; 2013.
Nine minutes on Monday: the quick and easy way to go from manager to leader. Robbins, J. New York : McGraw-Hill; 2013.
Project management: absolute beginner's guide. 3rd ed. Horine, GM. Indianapolis, Indiana : Que; 2013.
SPSS survival manual: a step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS. 5th ed. Pallant, J. New York : McGraw-Hill; 2013.
Start with why: how great leaders inspire everyone to take action. Sinek, S. New York : Portfolio; 2009.
Best care at lower cost: the path to continuously learning health care in America (2013). http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13444&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=Top+10+Most+Popular+Books+of+2013&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
America's health care system has become too complex and costly to continue business as usual. Best Care at Lower Cost explains that inefficiencies, an overwhelming amount of data, and other economic and quality barriers hinder progress in improving health and threaten the nation's economic stability and global competitiveness. According to this report, the knowledge and tools exist to put the health system on the right course to achieve continuous improvement and better quality care at a lower cost.
Creating equal opportunities for a healthy weight: workshop summary (2013). http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18553&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+12.03.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Creating Equal Opportunities for a Healthy Weight is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine's Standing Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention in June 2013 to examine income, race, and ethnicity, and how these factors intersect with childhood obesity and its prevention. Registered participants, along with viewers of a simultaneous webcast of the workshop, heard a series of presentations by researchers, policy makers, advocates, and other stakeholders focused on health disparities associated with income, race, ethnicity, and other characteristics and on how these factors intersect with obesity and its prevention. The workshop featured invited presentations and discussions concerning physical activity, healthy food access, food marketing and messaging, and the roles of employers, health care professionals, and schools.
Engaging the public in critical disaster planning and decision making: workshop summary (2013). http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18396&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+12.11.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Engaging the Public in Critical Disaster Planning and Decision Making is the summary of a workshop held in March 2013 to discuss the key principles of public engagement during the development of disaster plans, the response phase, and during the dissemination phase when interested community partners and the general public are informed of the policies that have been adopted. Presenters provided specific examples of resources to assist jurisdictions in planning public engagement activities as well as challenges experienced and potential solutions. This report introduces key principles of public engagement, provides practical guidance on how to plan and implement a public engagement activity, and presents tools to facilitate planning.
Evaluating obesity prevention efforts: a plan for measuring progress (2013). http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18334&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=Final+Book+12.13.13+-+Evaluating+Obesity+Prevention+Efforts&utm_content=&utm_term=
This book offers a framework that will provide guidance for systematic and routine planning, implementation, and evaluation of the advancement of obesity prevention efforts. This framework is for specific use with the goals and strategies from the 2012 report and can be used to assess the progress made in every community and throughout the country, with the ultimate goal of reducing the obesity epidemic. It offers potentially valuable guidance in improving the quality and effect of the actions being implemented.
Improving and accelerating therapeutic development for nervous system disorders: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18494&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+12.03.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Improving and Accelerating Therapeutic Development for Nervous System Disorders is the summary of a workshop convened by the IOM Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders to examine opportunities to accelerate early phases of drug development for nervous system drug discovery. Workshop participants discussed challenges in neuroscience research for enabling faster entry of potential treatments into first-in-human trials, explored how new and emerging tools and technologies may improve the efficiency of research, and considered mechanisms to facilitate a more effective and efficient development pipeline.
[ back to top ]
News and training opportunities
Midwest Center for Life-Long Learning in Public Health Online: training modules in core public health concepts. Most courses are free, but some are fee-based. Many offer CEUs. http://cpheo.sph.umn.edu/mclph/
NACCHO Model Practice Lunch and Learn Webinars: These 45 minute presentations are an opportunity to learn about and discuss programs with Model Practice Winners. After a presentation about the practice, participants can ask questions and discuss how to replicate the practice in their communities. http://www.naccho.org/topics/modelpractices/lunch-and-learn.cfm
National Handwashing Awareness Week is from December 4 - 10, 2013. Proper hand hygiene is the best way to prevent outbreaks and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant organisms in healthcare facilities and reduce overall infection rates. You can find free promotional materials at the following web sites: http://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/resources.htmlhttp://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/training/interactiveeducation/index2.htm
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
DiversityRx supports the work of health care providers, policymakers, researchers, and advocates to improve the accessibility and quality of health care for minority, immigrant, and indigenous communities. The site provides information on cultural healthcare issues including cultural competence professional development. http://www.diversityrx.org/
Extensive study on concussions in youth sports finds 'culture of resistance' for self-reporting injury; not enough evidence to support claim that helmets reduce concussion risk: Young athletes in the U.S. face a "culture of resistance" to reporting when they might have a concussion and to complying with treatment plans, which could endanger their well-being, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. The committee found little evidence that current sports helmet designs reduce the risk of concussions. http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=18377
Green & healthy homes initiative: Works to create green and healthy homes by working with government leaders to enact real, substantive policy changes. http://www.greenandhealthyhomes.org/
Large study to examine if vitamin D prevents diabetes: A clinical trial has begun to determine if taking a vitamin D supplement would help those who are pre-diabetic and at risk for developing type 2 diabetes to delay or prevent the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. http://www.nih.gov/news/health/oct2013/niddk-21.htm
Malaria cases in U.S. reach 40-year high: Increasing numbers of malaria cases reported in the U.S. serve as a reminder to travelers to countries with malaria: think ahead and take steps to protect yourself from this potentially fatal, but preventable disease. http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2013/p1031-malaria-cases.html
SAMHSA releases behavioral health, U.S., 2012 report: The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) released a report entitled Behavioral Health, United States, 2012 -- the latest in a series of publications (formerly known as Mental Health, United States) issued biennially by SAMHSA since 1980. This report features mental health and substance abuse statistics at the national and state levels from 40 different data sources.
Smoking linked to $278 billion in losses for U.S. employers: Workers who smoke cost the U.S. economy an estimated $278 billion annually in lost productivity due to absenteeism and extra healthcare costs. http://www.gallup.com/poll/164651/smoking-linked-278-billion-losses-employers.aspx?utm_source=alert&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=syndication&utm_content=morelink&utm_term=Wellbeing
Interesting journal articles
Attention to eyes is present but in decline in 2-6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism [published online ahead of print November 6, 2013]. Jones W, Klin A. Nature. doi: 10.1038/nature12715.
Deficits in eye contact have been a hallmark of autism since the condition's initial description. They are cited widely as a diagnostic feature and figure prominently in clinical instruments; however, the early onset of these deficits has not been known. Here we show in a prospective longitudinal study that infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit mean decline in eye fixation from 2 to 6 months of age, a pattern not observed in infants who do not develop ASD. These observations mark the earliest known indicators of social disability in infancy, but also falsify a prior hypothesis: in the first months of life, this basic mechanism of social adaptive action-eye looking-is not immediately diminished in infants later diagnosed with ASD; instead, eye looking appears to begin at normative levels prior to decline. The timing of decline highlights a narrow developmental window and reveals the early derailment of processes that would otherwise have a key role in canalizing typical social development. Finally, the observation of this decline in eye fixation-rather than outright absence-offers a promising opportunity for early intervention that could build on the apparent preservation of mechanisms subserving reflexive initial orientation towards the eyes.
Fine tuning of craniofacial morphology by distant-acting enhancers [published online ahead of print October 25, 2013]. Attanasio C, Nord AS, Zhu Y, et al. Science. doi: 10.1126/science.1241006.
The shape of the human face and skull is largely genetically determined. However, the genomic basis of craniofacial morphology is incompletely understood and hypothesized to involve protein-coding genes, as well as gene regulatory sequences. We used a combination of epigenomic profiling, in vivo characterization of candidate enhancer sequences in transgenic mice, and targeted deletion experiments to examine the role of distant-acting enhancers in craniofacial development. We identified complex regulatory landscapes consisting of enhancers that drive spatially complex developmental expression patterns. Analysis of mouse lines in which individual craniofacial enhancers had been deleted revealed significant alterations of craniofacial shape, demonstrating the functional importance of enhancers in defining face and skull morphology. These results demonstrate that enhancers are involved in craniofacial development and suggest that enhancer sequence variation contributes to the diversity of human facial morphology.
Long-term mortality after screening for colorectal cancer. Shaukat A, Mongin SJ, Geisser MS, et al. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(12):1106-14.
BACKGROUND: In randomized trials, fecal occult-blood testing reduces mortality from colorectal cancer. However, the duration of the benefit is unknown, as are the effects specific to age and sex. METHODS: In the Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study, 46,551 participants, 50 to 80 years of age, were randomly assigned to usual care (control) or to annual or biennial screening with fecal occult-blood testing. Screening was performed from 1976 through 1982 and from 1986 through 1992. We used the National Death Index to obtain updated information on the vital status of participants and to determine causes of death through 2008. RESULTS: Through 30 years of follow-up, 33,020 participants (70.9%) died. A total of 732 deaths were attributed to colorectal cancer: 200 of the 11,072 deaths (1.8%) in the annual-screening group, 237 of the 11,004 deaths (2.2%) in the biennial-screening group, and 295 of the 10,944 deaths (2.7%) in the control group. Screening reduced colorectal-cancer mortality (relative risk with annual screening, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.82; relative risk with biennial screening, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.93) through 30 years of follow-up. No reduction was observed in all-cause mortality (relative risk with annual screening, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.01; relative risk with biennial screening, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.01). The reduction in colorectal-cancer mortality was larger for men than for women in the biennial-screening group (P=0.04 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of screening with fecal occult-blood testing on colorectal-cancer mortality persists after 30 years but does not influence all-cause mortality. The sustained reduction in colorectal-cancer mortality supports the effect of polypectomy.
Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir fixed-dose combination with and without ribavirin in treatment-naive and previously treated patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection (LONESTAR): an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial [published online ahead of print November 1, 2013]. Lawitz E, Poordad FF, Pang PS, et al. Lancet. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62121-2.
BACKGROUND: Interferon-based treatment is not suitable for many patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection because of contraindications such as psychiatric illness, and a high burden of adverse events. We assessed the efficacy and safety of an interferon-free regimen-a fixed-dose combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir (400 mg) and the HCV NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir (90 mg), with and without ribavirin-in patients with genotype-1 hepatitis C infection who were treatment-naive or previously treated with a protease-inhibitor regimen. METHODS: For this open-label study, we enrolled 100 adult patients (>18 years) with HCV infection at a centre in the USA between Nov 2, 2012, and Dec 21, 2012. In cohort A, we used a computer-generated sequence to randomly assign (1:1:1; stratified by HCV genotype [1a vs 1b]) 60 non-cirrhotic, treatment-naive patients to receive sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir for 8 weeks (group 1), sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir and ribavirin for 8 weeks (group 2), or sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir for 12 weeks (group 3). In cohort B, we randomly allocated (1:1; stratified by genotype and presence or absence of cirrhosis) 40 patients who previously had virological failure after receiving a protease inhibitor regimen to receive sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir for 12 weeks (group 4) or sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir and ribavirin for 12 weeks (group 5). 22 (55%) of 40 patients in cohort B had compensated cirrhosis. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12), analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01329978. RESULTS: In cohort A, SVR12 was achieved by 19 (95%) of 20 patients (95% CI 75-100) in group 1, by 21 (100%) of 21 patients (84-100) in group 2, and by 18 (95%) of 19 patients (74-100) in group 3. In cohort B, SVR12 was achieved by 18 (95%) of 19 patients (74-100) in group 4 and by all 21 (100%) of 21 patients (84-100) in group 5. Two patients had viral relapse; one patient was lost to follow-up after achieving sustained virological response 8 weeks after treatment. The most common adverse events were nausea, anaemia, upper respiratory tract infection, and headache. One patient in group five had a serious adverse event of anaemia, thought to be related to ribavirin treatment. INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest that the fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir-ledipasvir alone or with ribavirin has the potential to cure most patients with genotype-1 HCV, irrespective of treatment history or the presence of compensated cirrhosis. Further clinical trials are needed to establish the best treatment duration and to further assess the contribution of ribavirin.
Weight change and health outcomes at 3 years after bariatric surgery among individuals with severe obesity [published online ahead of print November 4, 2013]. Courcoulas AP, Christian NJ, Belle SH, et al. JAMA. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.280928.
IMPORTANCE Severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥35) is associated with a broad range of health risks. Bariatric surgery induces weight loss and short-term health improvements, but little is known about long-term outcomes of these operations. OBJECTIVE To report 3-year change in weight and select health parameters after common bariatric surgical procedures. DESIGN AND SETTING The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Consortium is a multicenter observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers. PARTICIPANTS AND EXPOSURE Adults undergoing first-time bariatric surgical procedures as part of routine clinical care by participating surgeons were recruited between 2006 and 2009 and followed up until September 2012. Participants completed research assessments prior to surgery and 6 months, 12 months, and then annually after surgery. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Three years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), we assessed percent weight change from baseline and the percentage of participants with diabetes achieving hemoglobin A1c levels less than 6.5% or fasting plasma glucose values less than 126 mg/dL without pharmacologic therapy. Dyslipidemia and hypertension resolution at 3 years was also assessed. RESULTS At baseline, participants (N = 2458) were 18 to 78 years old, 79% were women, median BMI was 45.9 (IQR, 41.7-51.5), and median weight was 129 kg (IQR, 115-147). For their first bariatric surgical procedure, 1738 participants underwent RYGB, 610 LAGB, and 110 other procedures. At baseline, 774 (33%) had diabetes, 1252 (63%) dyslipidemia, and 1601 (68%) hypertension. Three years after surgery, median actual weight loss for RYGB participants was 41 kg (IQR, 31-52), corresponding to a percentage of baseline weight lost of 31.5% (IQR, 24.6%-38.4%). For LAGB participants, actual weight loss was 20 kg (IQR, 10-29), corresponding to 15.9% (IQR, 7.9%-23.0%). The majority of weight loss was evident 1 year after surgery for both procedures. Five distinct weight change trajectory groups were identified for each procedure. Among participants who had diabetes at baseline, 216 RYGB participants (67.5%) and 28 LAGB participants (28.6%) experienced partial remission at 3 years. The incidence of diabetes was 0.9% after RYGB and 3.2% after LAGB. Dyslipidemia resolved in 237 RYGB participants (61.9%) and 39 LAGB participants (27.1%); remission of hypertension occurred in 269 RYGB participants (38.2%) and 43 LAGB participants (17.4%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among participants with severe obesity, there was substantial weight loss 3 years after bariatric surgery, with the majority experiencing maximum weight change during the first year. However, there was variability in the amount and trajectories of weight loss and in diabetes, blood pressure, and lipid outcomes.
Accessibility handbook: making 508 websites for everyone. Cunningham, K. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, Inc.; 2012.
Adobe Acrobat XI : the official training workbook from Adobe Systems. San Jose, CA: Adobe; 2013.
Adobe InDesign CS6: classroom in a book: the official training workbook from Adobe Systems. Cruise, J. San Jose, CA: Adobe Systems Incorporated; 2012.
Categorical data analysis using SAS. 3rd ed. Cary, NC: SAS Institute; 2012.
Chronic medical disease and cognitive aging: toward a healthy body and brain. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.
Data matching: concepts and techniques for record linkage, entity resolution, and duplicate detection. Christen, P. New York: Springer; 2012.
The data warehouse toolkit: the definitive guide to dimensional modeling. Kimball, R. 3rd ed. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
Discovering statistics using R. Field, AP. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2012.
E-learning by design. Horton, WK. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer; 2012.
Endocrinology: adult and pediatric: diabetes mellitus and obesity. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2010.
Epidemiology for public health practice. Friis, RH. 5th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014.
Epidemiology of chronic disease: global perspectives. Harris, RE. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2013.
Essentials of online course design: a standards-based guide. Vai, M. New York: Routledge; 2011.
Health program planning and evaluation: a practical, systematic approach for community health. Issel, ML. 3rd ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014.
How to use SPSS statistics: a step-by-step guide to analysis and interpretation. Cronk, BC. 7th ed. Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing; 2012.
Infectious disease epidemiology: theory and practice. 3rd ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014.
Information security risk assessment toolkit: practical assessments through data collection and data analysis. Talabis, M. Boston: Elsevier; 2013.
Introduction to public health. Schneider, MJ. 4th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014.
IT governance: an international guide to data security and ISO27001/ISO27002. Calder, A. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Kogan Page; 2012.
Learning Java. Niemeyer, P. 4th ed. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly; 2013.
The little SAS book: a primer. Delwiche, LD. 5th ed. Cary, NC: SAS Institute; 2012.
Measuring the user experience: collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics. Tullis, T. 2nd ed. Boston: Elsevier, Inc.; 2013.
Microsoft Office Project 2007 for dummies. Muir, N. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2007.
Microsoft SharePoint 2010 plain & simple: learn the simplest ways to get things done with Microsoft SharePoint 2010. Lightfoot, J. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, Inc.; 2010.
Modern nutrition in health and disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.
Nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. 3rd ed. Boston: Elsevier; 2013.
One nation under stress: the trouble with stress as an idea. Becker, D. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.
PMP: Project Management Professional exam study guide. Heldman, K. 7th ed. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
PMP exam prep: accelerated learning to pass PMI's PMP exam. Mulcahy, R. 8th ed. Minnetonka, MN: RMC Publications, Inc.; 2013.
Pro ASP.NET MVC 4. Freeman, A. 4th ed. New York: Apress; 2012.
Project management : a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. Kerzner, HR. 11th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
Pursuing the good life: 100 reflections on positive psychology. Peterson, C. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.
The R book. Crawley, MJ. 2nd ed. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
Scenario-based e-learning: evidence-based guidelines for online workforce learning. Clark, RC. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer; 2013.
Social neuroscience and public health: foundations for the science of chronic disease prevention. New York: Springer; 2013.
Tarascon adult emergency pocketbook. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2008.
Team of rivals: the political genius of Abraham Lincoln. Goodwin, DK. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2005.
Windows 7 & Office 2010 for dummies. Rathbone, A. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2011.
Windows 7 inside out: deluxe edition. Bott, Ed. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press; 2011.
Educating the student body: taking physical activity and physical education to school (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18314&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+11.05.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Educating the Student Body makes recommendations about approaches for strengthening and improving programs and policies for physical activity and physical education in the school environment. This report lays out a set of guiding principles to guide its work on these tasks. These included: recognizing the benefits of instilling life-long physical activity habits in children; the value of using systems thinking in improving physical activity and physical education in the school environment; the recognition of current disparities in opportunities and the need to achieve equity in physical activity and physical education; the importance of considering all types of school environments; the need to take into consideration the diversity of students as recommendations are developed.
Elder abuse and its prevention: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18518&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies% 20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.23.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term= 20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.23.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Using an ecological framework, this workshop explored the burden of elder abuse around the world, focusing on its impacts on individuals, families, communities, and societies. Additionally, the workshop addressed occurrences and co-occurrences of different types of abuse, including physical, sexual, emotional, and financial, as well as neglect. The ultimate objective was to illuminate promising global and multisectoral evidence-based approaches to the prevention of elder maltreatment. While the workshop covered scope and prevalence and unique characteristics of abuse, the intention was to move beyond what is known about elder abuse to foster discussions about how to improve prevention, intervention, and mitigation of the victims' needs, particularly through collaborative efforts. The workshop discussions included innovative intervention models and opportunities for prevention across sectors and settings.
Establishing transdisciplinary professionalism for improving health outcomes: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18398&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.15.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore the possibility of whether different professions can come together and whether a dialogue with society on professionalism is possible. Most of the 59 members making up the Global Forum were present at the workshop and engaged with outside participants in active dialogue around issues related to professionalism and how the different professions might work effectively together and with society in creating a social contract. The structure of the workshop involved large plenary discussions, facilitated table conversations, and small-group breakout sessions. In this way, the members - representing multiple sectors, countries, health professions, and educational associations - had numerous opportunities to share their own perspectives on transdisciplinary professionalism as well as hear the opinions of subject matter experts and the general public.
Financing long-term services and supports for individuals with disabilities and older adults: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18538&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.29.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
The financing of long-term services and supports has become a major issue in the United States. These are the services and supports that individuals with disabilities, chronic conditions, and functional impairments need in order to live independently, such as assistance with eating, bathing, and dressing. Long-term services and supports do not include the medical or nursing services required to manage health conditions that may be responsible for a disabling condition. At least 11 million adults ages 18 and over receive long-term services and supports. Only a little more than half of them - 57 percent - are ages 65 or older. One study found that about 6 percent of people turning 65 in 2005 could expect to have expenses of more than $100,000 for long-term services and supports. Financing Long-Term Services and Supports for Individuals with Disabilities and Older Adults discusses the scope and trends of current sources of financing for long-term services and supports for working-age individuals with disabilities and older adults aging into disability, including income supports and personal savings. This report considers the role of families, business, and government in financing long-term services and supports and discusses implications of and opportunities for current and innovative approaches.
Organizational change to improve health literacy: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18378&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.23.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
As a follow up to the 2012 discussion paper Ten Attributes of a Health Literate Health Care Organization, participants met to examine what is known about implementation of the attributes of a health literate health care organization and to create a network of health literacy implementers who can share information about health literacy innovations and problem solving. This report discusses implementation approaches and shares tools that could be used in implementing specific literacy strategies.
Population health implications of the affordable care act: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18546&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.15.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Population Health Implications of the Affordable Care Act looks beyond narrow interpretations of population as the group of patients covered by a health plan to consider a more expansive understanding of population, one focused on the distribution of health outcomes across all individuals living within a certain set of geopolitical boundaries. In establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council, creating a fund for prevention and public health, and requiring nonprofit hospitals to transform their concept of community benefit, the ACA has expanded the arena for interventions to improve health beyond the "doctor's" office. Improving the health of the population - whether in a community or in the nation as a whole - requires acting to transform the places where people live, work, study, and play. This report examines the population health-oriented efforts of and interactions among public health agencies (state and local), communities, and health care delivery organizations that are beginning to facilitate such action.
[ back to top ]
News and training opportunities
Center for Public Health Continuing Education (CPHCE): Nationally known for its distance learning training, including the award-winning Public Health Live (T2B2) webcast series and numerous interactive, self-paced online courses. CPHCE offers a variety of free and affordable webinars, podcasts, broadcasts and in-person trainings. Nursing, CME and Certified Health Education Specialist continuing education credits are available for many of its programs: http://www.albany.edu/sph/cphce/index.shtml
Diabetes and the Expanding Roles of Health Educators: November 19, 2013, 12:00-1:00 PM EST. This webinar will provide information about Diabetes and how various factors affect why this epidemic is growing. https://sophe.webex.com/mw0307l/mywebex/default.do?nomenu=true&siteurl=sophe&service=6&rnd=0.5504537608492873&main_url=https%3A%2F%2Fsophe.webex.com%2Fec0606l%2Feventcenter%2Fevent%2FeventAction.do%3FtheAction%3Ddetail%26confViewID%3D1004117832%26%26%26%26siteurl%3Dsophe
The Ohio State University Center for Public Health Practice provides free online learning on a variety of public health topics: http://cph.osu.edu/practice/free-online-learning
The Public Health Grand Rounds (PHGR) is the continuing education program of the West Virginia University School of Public Health. The PHGR is a free continuing education program for the public health workforce that provides CME/CE credits for physicians, nurses, dentists, pharmacists, and other health professionals. The monthly sessions are webcast (live simulcast and archived) for all who would like to view at a later date. The lectures of this continuing education program have been viewed live and from archives regionally, nationally, and internationally: http://publichealth.hsc.wvu.edu/pages/Academics/Continuing-Education-Program
Cool websites and reports on hot topics
It’s Breast Cancer Awareness Month Learn more about the disease, current research, and ways to donate: http://ww5.komen.org/
Health Insurance Marketplace: Communication Toolkit for Health Agencies: The US Department of Health and Human Services has launched the Health Insurance Marketplace to make it easier for citizens to compare health coverage options and find plans that meet their needs and fit their budgets. http://www.cdc.gov/stltpublichealth/Products/health_toolkit.html
It’s also Health Literacy Month. Find a wealth of resources on this topic from the National Network of Libraries of Medicine: http://nnlm.gov/outreach/consumer/hlthlit.html
Healthy People 2020 Evidence-Based Resources Tool: Searchable database to find information and evidence-based resources for Healthy People 2020 topic areas. http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/implement/EBR.aspx
Leading the Workplace Wellness Movement: Public Health Departments' Role: Worksite wellness is of growing interest among state and territorial health departments as part of a larger trend among employers to foster an environment where healthy choices become easy choices for employees - beyond the traditional role of providing healthcare insurance coverage. http://www.rwjf.org/en/blogs/new-public-health/2013/09/leading_the_workplac.html?cid=xrs_rss-pr
NIH program explores the use of genomic sequencing in newborn healthcare: Can sequencing of newborns’ genomes provide useful medical information beyond what current newborn screening already provides? http://www.nih.gov/news/health/sep2013/nhgri-04.htm
Smartphone Microscope Detects Nanoparticles and Viruses: A lightweight microscope that attaches to a cell phone can detect single nanoparticles and viruses. It might one day be used for diagnostic tests in the field. http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/september2013/09302013smartphone.htm
Vaccine Clears Away Monkey AIDS Virus: An experimental vaccine given to monkeys triggered an immune attack that wiped out all traces of an AIDS-causing virus after a year or more. http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/september2013/09232013SIV.htm
Interesting journal articles
Anguera JA, Boccanfuso J, Rintoul JL, et al. Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults. Nature. 2013;501(7465):97-101.
Cognitive control is defined by a set of neural processes that allow us to interact with our complex environment in a goal-directed manner. Humans regularly challenge these control processes when attempting to simultaneously accomplish multiple goals (multitasking), generating interference as the result of fundamental information processing limitations. It is clear that multitasking behaviour has become ubiquitous in today's technologically dense world, and substantial evidence has accrued regarding multitasking difficulties and cognitive control deficits in our ageing population. Here we show that multitasking performance, as assessed with a custom-designed three-dimensional video game (NeuroRacer), exhibits a linear age-related decline from 20 to 79 years of age. By playing an adaptive version of NeuroRacer in multitasking training mode, older adults (60 to 85 years old) reduced multitasking costs compared to both an active control group and a no-contact control group, attaining levels beyond those achieved by untrained 20-year-old participants, with gains persisting for 6 months. Furthermore, age-related deficits in neural signatures of cognitive control, as measured with electroencephalography, were remediated by multitasking training (enhanced midline frontal theta power and frontal-posterior theta coherence). Critically, this training resulted in performance benefits that extended to untrained cognitive control abilities (enhanced sustained attention and working memory), with an increase in midline frontal theta power predicting the training-induced boost in sustained attention and preservation of multitasking improvement 6 months later. These findings highlight the robust plasticity of the prefrontal cognitive control system in the ageing brain, and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, of how a custom-designed video game can be used to assess cognitive abilities across the lifespan, evaluate underlying neural mechanisms, and serve as a powerful tool for cognitive enhancement.
Gefen T, Wieneke C, Martersteck A, et al. Naming vs knowing faces in primary progressive aphasia: A tale of 2 hemispheres. Neurology. 2013 Aug 13;81(7):658-64.
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the anatomical correlates of naming vs recognizing faces using a novel measure that utilizes culturally relevant and age-appropriate items, the Northwestern University Famous Faces (NUFFACE) Test, in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a syndrome characterized by progressive language deficits and associated with cortical atrophy in areas important for word and object representations. METHODS: NUFFACE Test performance of 27 controls (mean age 62.3 years) was compared with that of 30 patients with PPA (mean age 62 years). Associations between NUFFACE Test performance and cortical thickness measures were quantified within the PPA group. RESULTS: Patients with PPA displayed significant impairment on the NUFFACE Test, demonstrating that it is a useful measure of famous-face identification for individuals with relatively young-onset dementias. Despite widespread distribution of atrophy in the PPA group, face naming impairments were correlated with atrophy of the left anterior temporal lobe while face recognition impairments were correlated with bitemporal atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to their clinical relevance for highlighting the distinction between face naming and recognition impairments in individuals with young-onset dementia, these findings add new insights into the dissociable clinico-anatomical substrates of lexical retrieval and object knowledge.
Le-Niculescu H, Levey DF, Ayalew M, et al. Discovery and validation of blood biomarkers for suicidality. Mol Psychiatry. 2013 Aug 20 Epub ahead of print.
Suicides are a leading cause of death in psychiatric patients, and in society at large. Developing more quantitative and objective ways (biomarkers) for predicting and tracking suicidal states would have immediate practical applications and positive societal implications. We undertook such an endeavor. First, building on our previous blood biomarker work in mood disorders and psychosis, we decided to identify blood gene expression biomarkers for suicidality, looking at differential expression of genes in the blood of subjects with a major mood disorder (bipolar disorder), a high-risk population prone to suicidality. We compared no suicidal ideation (SI) states and high SI states using a powerful intrasubject design, as well as an intersubject case-case design, to generate a list of differentially expressed genes. Second, we used a comprehensive Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG) approach to identify and prioritize from the list of differentially expressed gene biomarkers of relevance to suicidality. CFG integrates multiple independent lines of evidence-genetic and functional genomic data-as a Bayesian strategy for identifying and prioritizing findings, reducing the false-positives and false-negatives inherent in each individual approach. Third, we examined whether expression levels of the blood biomarkers identified by us in the live bipolar subject cohort are actually altered in the blood in an age-matched cohort of suicide completers collected from the coroner's office, and report that 13 out of the 41 top CFG scoring biomarkers (32%) show step-wise significant change from no SI to high SI states, and then to the suicide completers group. Six out of them (15%) remained significant after strict Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Fourth, we show that the blood levels of SAT1 (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase 1), the top biomarker identified by us, at the time of testing for this study, differentiated future as well as past hospitalizations with suicidality, in a live cohort of bipolar disorder subjects, and exhibited a similar but weaker pattern in a live cohort of psychosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder) subjects. Three other (phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS), and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3)) of the six biomarkers that survived Bonferroni correction showed similar but weaker effects. Taken together, the prospective and retrospective hospitalization data suggests SAT1, PTEN, MARCKS and MAP3K3 might be not only state biomarkers but trait biomarkers as well. Fifth, we show how a multi-dimensional approach using SAT1 blood expression levels and two simple visual-analog scales for anxiety and mood enhances predictions of future hospitalizations for suicidality in the bipolar cohort (receiver-operating characteristic curve with area under the curve of 0.813). Of note, this simple approach does not directly ask about SI, which some individuals may deny or choose not to share with clinicians. Lastly, we conducted bioinformatic analyses to identify biological pathways, mechanisms and medication targets. Overall, suicidality may be underlined, at least in part, by biological mechanisms related to stress, inflammation and apoptosis.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 20 August 2013; doi:10.1038/mp.2013.95.
Malow BA, Adkins KW, Reynolds A, et al. Parent-Based Sleep Education for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013 Jun 11 Epub ahead of print.
This study provided sleep education to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to determine whether an individual or group format was more effective in improving sleep and aspects of daytime behavior and family functioning. Eighty children, ages 2-10 years, with ASD and sleep onset delay completed the study. Actigraphy and parent questionnaires were collected at baseline and 1 month after treatment. Mode of education did not affect outcomes. Sleep latency, insomnia subscales on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and other outcomes related to child and family functioning improved with treatment. Parent-based sleep education, delivered in relatively few sessions, was associated with improved sleep onset delay in children with ASD. Group versus individualized education did not affect outcome.
Ong YT, Wong TY, Klein R, et al. Hypertensive retinopathy and risk of stroke. Hypertension. 2013;62(4):706-11.
Although assessment of hypertensive retinopathy signs has been recommended for determining end-organ damage and stratifying vascular risk in persons with hypertension, its value remains unclear. In this study, we examine whether hypertensive retinopathy predicts the long-term risk of stroke in those with hypertension. A total of 2907 participants with hypertension aged 50 to 73 years at the 1993 to 1995 examination, who had gradable retinal photographs, no history of diabetes mellitus, stroke, and coronary heart disease at baseline and data on incident stroke, were included from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Retinal photographs were assessed for hypertensive retinopathy signs and classified as none, mild, and moderate/severe. Incident events of any stroke, cerebral infarction, and hemorrhagic stroke were identified and validated. After a mean follow-up period of 13.0 years, 165 persons developed incident stroke (146 cerebral infarctions and 15 hemorrhagic strokes). After adjusting for age, sex, blood pressure, and other risk factors, persons with moderate hypertensive retinopathy were more likely to have stroke (moderate versus no retinopathy: multivariable hazard ratios, 2.37 [95% confidence interval, 1.39-4.02]). In participants with hypertension on medication with good control of blood pressure, hypertensive retinopathy was related to an increased risk of cerebral infarction (mild retinopathy: hazard ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.55]; and moderate retinopathy: hazard ratio, 2.98 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-8.83]). Hypertensive retinopathy predicts the long-term risk of stroke, independent of blood pressure, even in treated patients with hypertension with good hypertension control. Retinal photographic assessment of hypertensive retinopathy signs may be useful for assessment of stroke risk.
These books are available for free in PDF format. Just follow the link and click the Download button.
Core Measurement Needs for Better Care, Better Health, and Lower Costs: Counting What Counts: Workshop Summary (2013).
Health care quality and its affordability have become very pressing issues in the United States. All sectors of the country are attempting to push forward initiatives that will improve the health care system as well as the health of the American population in general. Despite the economical dedication to health care, about 1/5, the system remains uneven and fragmented, patient harm is quite common, care is often uncoordinated, and many more mishaps occur. There exists many obstacles to improve the nation's health care system; these include the capacity to reliably and consistently measure progress. In 2006 the Institute of Medicine (IOM) established the Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care which has since accelerated the development of a learning health system- one in which science, informatics, incentives, and culture are aligned to create a continuous learning loop. This learning loop would thus help make the health care system better.
Crisis: Standards of Care: A Systems Framework for Catastrophic Disaster Response (2012). http://click.newsletters.nas.edu/?qs=f732e71fb50dbe55367113699ea686dcb4f8f2e1a64cfa521f4f039baf60093522d264de600647ab
Crisis Standards of Care provides a framework for a systems approach to the development and implementation of CSC plans, and addresses the legal issues and the ethical, palliative care, and mental health issues that agencies and organizations at each level of a disaster response should address. Please note: this report is not intended to be a detailed guide to emergency preparedness or disaster response. What is described in this report is an extrapolation of existing incident management practices and principles.
Improving the Health, Safety, and Well-Being of Young Adults: Workshop Summary (2013). http://click.newsletters.nas.edu/?qs=af313bc9ed941af2892d5c08937d2066e177ceb8a788d3d035a38583e1bcb21c9aa05dc7713587b2
Improving the Health, Safety, and Well-Being of Young Adults is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) in May, 2013. More than 250 researchers, practitioners, policy makers, and young adults presented and discussed research on the development, health, safety, and well-being of young adults. This report focuses on the developmental characteristics and attributes of this age group and its placement in the life course; how well young adults function across relevant sectors, including, for example, health and mental health, education, labor, justice, military, and foster care; and how the various sectors that intersect with young adults influence their health and well-being. Improving the Health, Safety, and Well-Being of Young Adults provides an overview of existing research and identifies research gaps and issues that deserve more intensive study. It also is meant to start a conversation aimed at a larger IOM/NRC effort to guide research, practices, and policies affecting young adults.
New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research (2013). http://click.newsletters.nas.edu/?qs=3ed48541cfdd174d6ddc556f2e841e68b8b3a05168b22d666c4574a41e22e4bb6b24570afea0b4c4
New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research recommends an actionable framework to guide and support future child abuse and neglect research. This report calls for a comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach to child abuse and neglect research that examines factors related to both children and adults across physical, mental, and behavioral health domains--including those in child welfare, economic support, criminal justice, education, and health care systems--and assesses the needs of a variety of subpopulations. It should also clarify the causal pathways related to child abuse and neglect and, more importantly, assess efforts to interrupt these pathways. New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research identifies four areas to look to in developing a coordinated research enterprise: a national strategic plan, a national surveillance system, a new generation of researchers, and changes in the federal and state programmatic and policy response
Toward Quality Measures for Population Health and the Leading Health Indicators (2013). http://click.newsletters.nas.edu/?qs=e1a2d787b77992f0b0c1c37f3f4844707f7e44056873e8215f73bcbdb2b11f5d6515384ee07e184c
The scope of work for this project is to use the nine aims for improvement of quality in public health (population-centered, equitable, proactive, health promoting, risk reducing, vigilant, transparent, effective, and efficient) as a framework to identify quality measures for the Healthy People Leading Health Indicators (LHIs). The committee reviewed existing literature on the 12 LHI topics and the 26 Leading Health Indicators. Quality measures for the LHIs that are aligned with the nine aims for improvement of quality in public health will be identified. When appropriate, alignments with the six Priority Areas for Improvement of Quality in Public Health will be noted in the Committee's report. Toward Quality Measures for Population Health and the Leading Health Indicators also address data reporting and analytical capacities that must be available to capture the measures and for demonstrating the value of the measures to improving population health.
An Update on Research Issues in the Assessment of Birth Settings: Workshop Summary (2013). http://click.newsletters.nas.edu/?qs=af313bc9ed941af2c513a5147292f28182533244894cf373e08aad29a529e873b77fff1d2620fb1b
More than 30 years ago, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) convened a committee to determine methodologies and research needed to evaluate childbirth settings in the United States. The committee members reported their findings and recommendations in a consensus report, Research Issues in the Assessment of Birth Settings (IOM and NRC, 1982). An Update on Research Issues in the Assessment of Birth Settings is the summary of a workshop convened in March, 2013, to review updates to the 1982 report. Health care providers, researchers, government officials, and other experts from midwifery, nursing, obstetric medicine, neonatal medicine, public health, social science, and related fields presented and discussed research findings that advance our understanding of the effects of maternal care services in different birth settings on labor, clinical and other birth procedures, and birth outcomes. These settings include conventional hospital labor and delivery wards, birth centers, and home births. This report identifies datasets and relevant research literature that may inform a future ad hoc consensus study to address these concerns.
[ back to top ]
News and training opportunities
I would like to take this opportunity to introduce myself. My name is Sandra Teft and I have recently replaced Carolyn Medina’s position at the DSHS Medical and Research Library. I have traveled many, many miles to get here from Syracuse, New York. Please contact me for research assistance, obtaining journal articles, and any additional library needs. I look forward to working with you!
Cool websites and reports on hot topics
Genome: Unlocking Life’s Code: Your genome holds clues to your current and future health as well as your ancestry. Explore how genome studies are improving medical care and our understanding of the world around us. This educational website is part of a state-of-the-art museum exhibition developed through an NIH-Smithsonian partnership. http://unlockinglifescode.org/
NIAMS Kids Pages: It’s smart to form habits that can help keep your bones, joints, muscles and skin healthy for years to come. This newly updated site for kids—from NIH’s National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS)—can help you keep your body working and moving with ease. http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Kids
NIH BRAIN Initiative: The NIH BRAIN Initiative aims to revolutionize our understanding of the human brain. Learn more about wide-ranging research efforts to uncover the complexities of this mysterious organ. Find videos, fact sheets and more. http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/may2013/capsule3
Pregnancy: Every Week Counts: Learn why it’s important to let the baby set the delivery date. As long as mother and child are both doing fine, it’s best for the baby’s health and yours to wait until at least 39 weeks of pregnancy for delivery. Babies born sooner are at risk for several health problems. http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/jun2013/capsule3
Stem Cells Coaxed To Create Working Blood Vessels: Successful testing in mice may lead to ways of repairing and regenerating tissues and organs in humans. http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/august2013/08052013vessels.htm
What is Gluten-Free? FDA Has an Answer: With food allergies on the rise, many people are altering their diets and analyzing their food choices much more closely. With the FDA’s new guidelines, those with Celiac Disease can now be certain what exactly is meant by “gluten-free”. http://www.fda.gov/forconsumers/consumerupdates/ucm363069.htm
Interesting journal articles
Crane PK, Walker R, Hubbard RA, et al. Glucose levels and risk of dementia. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(6):540-8.
Higher glucose levels may be a risk factor for dementia, even among persons without diabetes.
Bay B, Mortensen EL, Hvidtjørn D, Kesmodel US. Fertility treatment and risk of childhood and adolescent mental disorders: register based cohort study. BMJ. 2013;347:f3978.
The article assesses the mental health of children born after fertility treatment by comparing their risk of mental disorders with that of spontaneously conceived children.
Halfon N, Kuo AA. What DSM-5 Could Mean to Children With Autism and Their Families. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(7):608-613.
The American Psychiatric Association will update its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders to its fifth edition (DSM-5). With this new edition, the classification and diagnostic criteria for the spectrum of autistic disorders will change and become more specific and potentially more restrictive. Rather than maintaining several subcategories of autism including Asperger syndrome, there will be one new category called autism spectrum disorder. This change may alter which children are diagnosed as having autism as well as modify eligibility for treatment, educational, and other support services. We review the history and rationale for the proposed changes as well as several recent studies that have attempted to gauge the impact of these changes on children and families. We also consider how the proposed changes are likely to create new challenges for parents who are attempting to organize their children's care and for pediatricians who are providing that care and assisting with care coordination.
Kesselheim AS, Green MD, Avorn J. Who Is Now Responsible for Discovering and Warning About Adverse Effects of Generic Drugs? JAMA. 2013 Aug 5.
The article discusses the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act’s requirement that generic manufacturers provide the same warnings provided with the brand-name version of the drug. While this allows for consistency, many cases have shown that patients have experienced adverse effects while using generic drugs. In some cases, patients were not warned of the possibility of these effects due to the fact that the brand-name version did not include this information. The stipulation providing consistency does not always provide safety for the patient and also leaves no room for legal discourse as the generic manufacturers are acting in accordance with the law.
Kumar S, Nilsen WJ, Abernethy A, et al. Mobile Health Technology Evaluation: The mHealth Evidence Workshop. Am J Prev Med. 2013 Aug;45(2):228-36.
Creative use of new mobile and wearable health information and sensing technologies (mHealth) has the potential to reduce the cost of health care and improve well-being in numerous ways. These applications are being developed in a variety of domains, but rigorous research is needed to examine the potential, as well as the challenges, of utilizing mobile technologies to improve health outcomes.
[ back to top ]
- Access 2010: The Missing Manual by Matthew MacDonald.
- Beating Back the Devil: on the Front Lines with the Disease Detectives by Maryn.McKenna.
- Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences by Wayne W. Daniel.
- Business Succession Planning for Dummies by Arnie Dahlke.
- The Complete Step-by-Step Guide to Designing and Teaching Online by Joan Thormann.
- Confronting Violence: Answering Questions about the Epidemic by George A. Gellert.
- Conquering the Content: A Step-by-Step Guide to Online Course Design by Robin M. Smith.
- Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment by Stephen J. McPhee. (Reference)
- Current Diagnosis and Treatment Pediatrics by William W. Hay. (Reference)
- Data Points: Visualization that Means Something by Nathan Yau.
- Diabestiy: The Obesity-Diabetes Epidemic that Threatens America by Francine Ratner Kaufman.
- Epidemiology of Women’s Health by Ruby T. Senie.
- Essential Case Studies in Public Health: Putting Public Health into Practice by Katherine Hunting.
- The Essentials of Biostatistics for Physicians, Nurses, and Clinicians by Michael R. Chernick.
- Essentials of Health Care Finance by William O. Cleverley.
- Essentials of Public Health by Bernard J. Turnock.
- Excel 2010 Bible by John Walkenbach.
- Excel 2010: The Missing Manual by Matthew MacDonald.
- Health Policymaking in the United States by Beaufort B. Longest.
- Krause’s Food & the Nutrition Care Process. (Reference)
- Making War at Fort Hood: Life and Uncertainty in a Military Community by Kenneth T. MacLeish.
- Public Health Nursing: Population-Centered Health Care in the Community by Marcia Stanhope and Jeanette Lancaster.
- Public Health: What it is and How It Works by Bernard J. Turnock.
- Thinking Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman.
[ back to top ]