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News and training opportunities
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Interesting journal articles
News and training opportunities
Bringing community health workers into the mainstream of U.S. health care
A new discussion paper advocates the use of community health workers in the primary care arena to better assist vulnerable populations. http://www.iom.edu/Global/Perspectives/2015/Community-Health-Workers.aspx
CDC foundation's new Business Pulse focuses on a healthy workforce
The CDC Foundation has launched Business Pulse: Healthy Workforce that provides employers and workers with access to resources and information to help improve workforce health and safety, attract and retain high-performing employees and minimize health care costs. http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2015/a0128-healthy-workforce.html
Get Ready: Set Your Clocks, Check Your Stocks emergency preparedness campaign
APHA's Get Ready: Set Your Clocks, Check Your Stocks campaign provides free emergency preparedness tools and resources to share on social media, your website, or in your community. http://getreadyforflu.org/clocksstocks/index.htm
HIV/STI update newsletter
Newsletter that features recent HIV/STI information and resources, upcoming conferences and trainings, funding opportunities, and employment opportunities for local health department professionals. http://www.naccho.org/topics/HPDP/hivsti/weekly-updates.cfm
Nationwide study reports shifts in Americans' use of natural products
A nationally representative survey shows that natural product use in the United States has shifted since 2007, with some products becoming more popular and some falling out of favor. Overall, natural products (dietary supplements other than vitamins and minerals) remain the most common complementary health approach. http://www.nih.gov/news/health/feb2015/nccih-10.htm
Public health improvement webinar: The Quality Improvement Welcome Kit
March 3, 2015, 2:00-3:30 PM EST. Webinar for public health professionals curious about QI. https://cc.readytalk.com/cc/s/registrations/new?cid=7u46z4mlaajq
Smartphone device detects HIV, syphilis
Low-cost accessory replicates laboratory-based blood test, researchers report. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_150774.html
Tools of the trade: putting public health evidence in action
February 24, 2015, 2:00-3:00 PM EST. This cyber-seminar will introduce a newly released curriculum designed to train community program planners and health educators to locate, select, adapt and implement evidence-based strategies into practice. https://researchtoreality.cancer.gov/cyber-seminars/tools-trade-putting-public-health-evidence-action
U.S. advisers rethink cholesterol risk from foods: report
Decades-old advice to Americans against eating foods high in cholesterol likely will not appear in the next update of the nation's Dietary Guidelines, according to published reports. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_150870.html
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Chronic disease indicators
Chronic disease indicators (CDI) are a set of surveillance indicators that enable public health professionals and policymakers to retrieve uniformly defined state and selected metropolitan-level data for chronic diseases and risk factors that have a substantial impact on public health. http://www.cdc.gov/cdi/
New FastStats mobile application
The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) has launched FastStats for iOS that provides access to topic-specific NCHS content. Topics include diseases and conditions, injuries, life stages and populations, health care and insurance, and birth and mortality data. Content is updated automatically when the device is connected to the internet, giving the user up-to-date health statistics. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/mobile-application.htm
New and improved: Public Health Improvement Resource Center
The Public Health Improvement Resource Center has been refreshed and improved to meet the evolving needs of public health improvement professionals. http://www.phf.org/news/Pages/New_and_Improved_Public_Health_Improvement_Resource_Center.aspx
Recent measles outbreaks point to gaps in elimination efforts in the Americas
Recent measles outbreaks in the United States and Brazil suggest that immunization rates in some areas have dropped below levels needed to prevent the spread of cases imported into the America. http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10408%3Arecent-measles-outbreaks-point-to-gaps-in-elimination-efforts-in-the-americas&Itemid=1926&lang=en
Have you taken a look at your drinking habits and how they may affect your health? Some people have symptoms of an alcohol use disorder without recognizing them. Others don’t know where to find help to cut back or quit. This site offers research-based information about how alcohol affects your health and tips for making changes. http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/issue/Jan2015/Capsule3
Interesting journal articles
Colorectal cancer incidence among young adults in California. Singh KE, Taylor TH, Pan CG, Stamos MJ, Zell JA. J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol. 2014;3(4):176-184.
Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has decreased over the past three decades, due largely to screening efforts. Relatively little is known about CRC incidence among the young adult (YA) population ages 20-39, as screening typically commences at age 50 for average-risk individuals. We examined CRC incidence with a focus on YAs in order to identify high-risk subgroups. Methods: We analyzed 231,544 incident CRC cases from 1988-2009 (including 5617 YAs 20-39 years of age) from the California Cancer Registry. We assessed age-specific incidence rates by race/ethnicity, gender, and colorectal tumor location, and calculated the biannual percent change (BAPC) to monitor change in incidence over the 22-year study period. Results: The absolute incidence of CRC per 100,000 was low among YAs 20-29 and 30-39 years old (ranging from 0.7 per 100,000 among Hispanic and African American females aged 20-29 up to 5.0 per 100,000 among Asian/Pacific Islander males aged 30-39). However, we observed increasing CRC incidence rates over time among both males and females in the YA population, particularly for distal colon cancer in Hispanic females aged 20-29 (BAPC=+15.9%; p<0.042). Conclusion: The absolute incidence of CRC remains far lower for YAs than among adults aged 50 and over. However, CRC incidence is increasing among young adults, in contrast to the decreasing rates observed for adults in the screened population (aged 50 and above). More research is needed to better characterize YAs at increased risk for CRC.
Dose of jogging and long-term mortality: the copenhagen city heart study. Schnohr P, O'Keefe JH, Marott JL, Lange P, Jensen GB. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65(5):411-9.
BACKGROUND: People who are physically active have at least a 30% lower risk of death during follow-up compared with those who are inactive. However, the ideal dose of exercise for improving longevity is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between jogging and long-term, all-cause mortality by focusing specifically on the effects of pace, quantity, and frequency of jogging. METHODS: As part of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 1,098 healthy joggers and 3,950 healthy nonjoggers have been prospectively followed up since 2001. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed with age as the underlying time scale and delayed entry. RESULTS: Compared with sedentary nonjoggers, 1 to 2.4 h of jogging per week was associated with the lowest mortality (multivariable hazard ratio [HR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11 to 0.80). The optimal frequency of jogging was 2 to 3 times per week (HR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.69) or ≤1 time per week (HR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.72). The optimal pace was slow (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.10) or average (HR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.66). The joggers were divided into light, moderate, and strenuous joggers. The lowest HR for mortality was found in light joggers (HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.10 to 0.47), followed by moderate joggers (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.32 to 1.38) and strenuous joggers (HR: 1.97; 95% CI: 0.48 to 8.14). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest a U-shaped association between all-cause mortality and dose of jogging as calibrated by pace, quantity, and frequency of jogging. Light and moderate joggers have lower mortality than sedentary nonjoggers, whereas strenuous joggers have a mortality rate not statistically different from that of the sedentary group.
Mercury exposure and antinuclear antibodies among females of reproductive age in the United States: NHANES [published online ahead of print February 10, 2015]. Somers EC1, Ganser MA, Warren JS, et al. Environ Health Perspect.
BACKGROUND: Immune dysregulation associated with mercury has been suggested, though data in the general population are lacking. Chronic exposure to low levels of methylmercury (organic) and inorganic mercury is common, such as through fish consumption and dental amalgams. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between mercury biomarkers and antinuclear antibody (ANA) positivity and titer strength. METHODS: Among females 16-49 years (n=1352) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004, we examined cross-sectional associations between mercury and ANAs (indirect immunofluorescence; cutoff ≥1:80). Three biomarkers of mercury exposure were utilized: hair (available 1999-2000) and total blood (1999-2004) predominantly represented methylmercury, and urinary (1999-2002) inorganic. Survey statistics were used. Multivariable modeling adjusted for several covariates, including age and omega-3 fatty acids. RESULTS: 16% of females were ANA-positive; 96% of ANA-positives had a nuclear staining pattern of speckled. Mercury geometric means (standard deviations) were: 0.22 (0.03) ppm hair, 0.92 (0.05) µg/L blood, and 0.62 (0.04) µg/L urinary. Hair and blood, but not urinary, mercury were associated with ANA positivity (sample sizes 452, 1352, and 804, respectively), adjusting for confounders: hair odds ratio (OR)=4.10 (95% CI: 1.66, 10.13); blood OR=2.32 (95% CI: 1.07, 5.03) comparing highest versus lowest quantiles. Magnitudes of association were strongest for high-titer (≥1:1280) ANA: hair OR=11.41 (95% CI: 1.60, 81.23); blood OR=5.93 (95% CI: 1.57, 22.47). CONCLUSIONS: Methylmercury, at low levels generally considered safe, was associated with subclinical autoimmunity among reproductive-age females. Autoantibodies may predate clinical disease by years, thus methylmercury exposure may be relevant to future autoimmune disease risk.
Network-based metaanalysis identifies HNF4A and PTBP1 as longitudinally dynamic biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease [published online ahead of print February 2, 2015]. Santiago JA, Potashkin JA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.
Environmental and genetic factors are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD), the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease among the elderly. Network-based metaanalysis of four independent microarray studies identified the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4A), a transcription factor associated with gluconeogenesis and diabetes, as a central regulatory hub gene up-regulated in blood of PD patients. In parallel, the polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1), involved in the stabilization and mRNA translation of insulin, was identified as the most down-regulated gene. Quantitative PCR assays revealed that HNF4A and PTBP1 mRNAs were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in blood of 51 PD patients and 45 controls nested in the Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for Parkinson’s Disease. These results were confirmed in blood of 50 PD patients compared with 46 healthy controls nested in the Harvard Biomarker Study. Relative abundance of HNF4A mRNA correlated with the Hoehn and Yahr stage at baseline, suggesting its clinical utility to monitor disease severity. Using both markers, PD patients were classified with 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Longitudinal performance analysis demonstrated that relative abundance of HNF4A and PTBP1 mRNAs significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in PD patients during the 3-y follow-up period. The inverse regulation of HNF4A and PTBP1 provides a molecular rationale for the altered insulin signaling observed in PD patients. The longitudinally dynamic biomarkers identified in this study may be useful for monitoring disease-modifying therapies for PD.
Preliminary efficacy of adapted responsive teaching for infants at risk of autism spectrum disorder in a community sample. Baranek GT, Watson LR, Turner-Brown L, et al. Autism Res Treat. 2015;2015:386951.
This study examined the (a) feasibility of enrolling 12-month-olds at risk of ASD from a community sample into a randomized controlled trial, (b) subsequent utilization of community services, and (c) potential of a novel parent-mediated intervention to improve outcomes. The First Year Inventory was used to screen and recruit 12-month-old infants at risk of ASD to compare the effects of 6-9 months of Adapted Responsive Teaching (ART) versus referral to early intervention and monitoring (REIM). Eighteen families were followed for ~20 months. Assessments were conducted before randomization, after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. Utilization of community services was highest for the REIM group. ART significantly outperformed REIM on parent-reported and observed measures of child receptive language with good linear model fit. Multiphase growth models had better fit for more variables, showing the greatest effects in the active treatment phase, where ART outperformed REIM on parental interactive style (less directive), child sensory responsiveness (less hyporesponsive), and adaptive behavior (increased communication and socialization). This study demonstrates the promise of a parent-mediated intervention for improving developmental outcomes for infants at risk of ASD in a community sample and highlights the utility of earlier identification for access to community services earlier than standard practice.
Underlying reasons associated with hospital readmission following surgery in the United States. Merkow RP, Ju MH, Chung JW, et al. JAMA. 2015;313(5):483-95.
IMPORTANCE: Financial penalties for readmission have been expanded beyond medical conditions to include surgical procedures. Hospitals are working to reduce readmissions; however, little is known about the reasons for surgical readmission. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the reasons, timing, and factors associated with unplanned postoperative readmissions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing surgery at one of 346 continuously enrolled US hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, had clinically abstracted information examined. Readmission rates and reasons (ascertained by clinical data abstractors at each hospital) were assessed for all surgical procedures and for 6 representative operations: bariatric procedures, colectomy or proctectomy, hysterectomy, total hip or knee arthroplasty, ventral hernia repair, and lower extremity vascular bypass. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Unplanned 30-day readmission and reason for readmission. RESULTS: The unplanned readmission rate for the 498,875 operations was 5.7%. For the individual procedures, the readmission rate ranged from 3.8% for hysterectomy to 14.9% for lower extremity vascular bypass. The most common reason for unplanned readmission was surgical site infection (SSI) overall (19.5%) and also after colectomy or proctectomy (25.8%), ventral hernia repair (26.5%), hysterectomy (28.8%), arthroplasty (18.8%), and lower extremity vascular bypass (36.4%). Obstruction or ileus was the most common reason for readmission after bariatric surgery (24.5%) and the second most common reason overall (10.3%), after colectomy or proctectomy (18.1%), ventral hernia repair (16.7%), and hysterectomy (13.4%). Only 2.3% of patients were readmitted for the same complication they had experienced during their index hospitalization. Only 3.3% of patients readmitted for SSIs had experienced an SSI during their index hospitalization. There was no time pattern for readmission, and early (≤7 days postdischarge) and late (>7 days postdischarge) readmissions were associated with the same 3 most common reasons: SSI, ileus or obstruction, and bleeding. Patient comorbidities, index surgical admission complications, non-home discharge (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95% CI, 1.35-1.46]), teaching hospital status (HR, 1.14 [95% CI 1.07-1.21]), and higher surgical volume (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.07-1.25]) were associated with a higher risk of hospital readmission. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Readmissions after surgery were associated with new postdischarge complications related to the procedure and not exacerbation of prior index hospitalization complications, suggesting that readmissions after surgery are a measure of postdischarge complications. These data should be considered when developing quality indicators and any policies penalizing hospitals for surgical readmission.
Underuse of modern methods of contraception: underlying causes and consequent undesired pregnancies in 35 low- and middle-income countries [published online ahead of print February 3, 2015]. Bellizzi S, Sobel HL, Obara H, Temmerman M. Hum Reprod.
STUDY QUESTION: What is the contribution of the underuse of modern methods (MM) of contraception to the annual undesired pregnancies in 35 low- and middle-income countries? SUMMARY ANSWER: Fifteen million out of 16.7 million undesired pregnancies occurring annually in 35 countries could have been prevented with the optimal use of MM of contraception. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Every year, 87 million women worldwide become pregnant unintentionally because of the underuse of MM of contraception. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Demographic and health surveys (DHS) of 35 countries, conducted between 2005 and 2012, were analysed. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Contraceptive use of 12 874 unintentionally pregnant women was compared with 111 301 sexually active women who were neither pregnant nor desiring pregnancy. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: An average of 96% of 15- to 49-year-old eligible women took part in the survey. When adjusted for covariates and compared with the use of MM of contraception, the use of traditional methods was associated with a 2.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-3.4] times increase in odds of an undesired pregnancy, while non-use of any method was associated with a 14.3 (95% CI, 12.3-16.7) times increase. This corresponded to an estimated 16.7 million undesired pregnancies occurring annually in the 35 countries, of which 15.0 million could have been prevented with the optimal use of MM of contraception (13.5 million women did not use MM whilst 1.5 million women utilized MM incorrectly). Women with the lowest educational attainment and wealth quintile were 8.6 (95% CI: 8.2-9.1) and 2.6 (95% CI: 2.4-2.9) times less likely to use contraceptives compared with those with the highest level of each, respectively. Of the 14 893 women who neither desired pregnancy nor used contraception, 5559 (37.3%) cited fear of side effects and health concerns as the reason for non-use, 3331 (22.4%) cited they or their partner's opposition to contraception or religious prohibition and 2620 (17.6%) underestimated the risk of pregnancy. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Despite the fact that DHS are considered high-quality studies, we should not underestimate the role played by recall bias for past pregnancies. Few women report a current pregnancy in the first trimester and undesired pregnancies at that time are probably prone to under-reporting. Some terminated pregnancies may not be included in the current pregnancy group. Furthermore, covariates measured at the time of the survey may not have reflected the same covariates at the time the currently pregnant women became pregnant. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Underuse of MM of contraception burdens especially the poor and the less educated. National strategies should address unfounded health concerns, fear of side effects, opposition and underestimated risk of pregnancy, which are major contributors to undesired pregnancies. FUNDING/CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: No external funding was utilized for this report. There are no conflicts of interest to declare.
Vascular calcification and bone mineral density in recurrent kidney stone formers. Shavit L, Girfoglio D, Vijay V, et al. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(2):278-85.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent epidemiologic studies have provided evidence for an association between nephrolithiasis and cardiovascular disease, although the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Vascular calcification (VC) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and the hypothesis explored in this study is that VC is more prevalent in calcium kidney stone formers (KSFs). The aims of this study were to determine (1) whether recurrent calcium KSFs have more VC and osteoporosis compared with controls and (2) whether hypercalciuria is related to VC in KSFs. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: This is a retrospective, matched case-control study that included KSFs attending an outpatient nephrology clinic of the Royal Free Hospital (London, UK) from 2011 to 2014. Age- and sex-matched non-stone formers were drawn from a list of potential living kidney donors from the same hospital. A total of 111 patients were investigated, of which 57 were KSFs and 54 were healthy controls. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed using available computed tomography (CT) imaging. The prevalence, severity, and associations of AAC and CT BMD between KSFs and non-stone formers were compared. RESULTS: Mean age was 47±14 years in KSFs and 47±13 in non-stone formers. Men represented 56% and 57% of KSFs and non-stone formers, respectively. The prevalence of AAC was similar in both groups (38% in KSFs versus 35% in controls, P=0.69). However, the AAC severity score (median [25th percentile, 75th percentile]) was significantly higher in KSFs compared with the control group (0 [0, 43] versus 0 [0, 10], P<0.001). In addition, the average CT BMD was significantly lower in KSFs (159±53 versus 194 ±48 Hounsfield units, P<0.001). A multivariate model adjusted for age, sex, high BP, diabetes, smoking status, and eGFR confirmed that KSFs have higher AAC scores and lower CT BMD compared with non-stone formers (P<0.001 for both). Among stone formers, the association between AAC score and hypercalciuria was not statistically significant (P=0.86). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that patients with calcium kidney stones suffer from significantly higher degrees of aortic calcification than age- and sex-matched non-stone formers, suggesting that VC may be an underlying mechanism explaining reported associations between nephrolithiasis and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, bone demineralization is more prominent in KSFs. However, more data are needed to confirm the possibility of potentially common underlying mechanisms leading to extraosseous calcium deposition and osteoporosis in KSFs.
Adobe InDesign CS5 classroom in a book : the official training workbook from Adobe Systems. John Cruise, 2015. (Z 253.532 A34 C785 2015)
In addition to learning the key elements of the InDesign interface, this completely revised CC edition covers new features, including rows and columns in tables, dual PDF and IDML file packaging, fixed and reflow EPUBs, and major improvements in the way text and graphics are handled during EPUB export.
How to do everything : Microsoft SharePoint 2013, 2nd ed. Stephen Cawood, 2013. (TK 5105.875 I6 C396)
With this book you’ll learn to set up SharePoint sites and use document management, wikis, taxonomy, blogs, social features, and more to organize, manage, and share content.
Interactive InDesign CC : bridging the gap between print & digital publishing. Mira Rubin, 2014. (Z 253.532 A34 R83 2013)
This tutorial-based guide to InDesign CC provides you with a hands-on experience of the EPUB creation process, InDesign animation, Digital Publishing Suite app creation, creation of interactive PDFs, and a host of techniques that serve equally well in both print and digital production.
Microsoft SharePoint 2013 for dummies. Ken Withee, 2013. (TK 5105.875 I6 W584 2013)
This new edition covers all the latest features of SharePoint 2013 and provides you with an easy-to-understand resource for making the most of all that this version has to offer. You'll learn how to get a site up and running, branded, and populated with content, workflow, and management. In addition, this new edition includes essential need-to-know information for administrators, techsumers, and page admins who want to leverage the cloud-hosted features online, either as a standalone product or in conjunction with an existing SharePoint infrastructure.
Microsoft SharePoint 2013 inside out. Darvish Shadravan, 2013. (TK 5105.875 I6 S533 2013)
This book will help you to efficiently manage documents throughout the enterprise, build team sites and collaborate with Microsoft OneNote and SkyDrive, design workflows with SharePoint Designer and Microsoft Visio, produce e-forms using Microsoft InfoPath and Access, manage community sites using business social features, connect SharePoint to external data and business systems, create business intelligence dashboards and key performance indicators, and customize and control Sharepoint enterprise search.
Microsoft SharePoint 2013 plain & simple. Johnathan Lightfoot, 2013. (TK 5105.875 I6 L544 2013)
With this book you'll learn you’ll learn how to create libraries for all kinds of media, share information in one location, organize people and processes, connect SharePoint to Microsoft Office with no fuss, find things fast with the Search Center, and expand your community with social networking.
Microsoft SharePoint 2013 step by step. Olga Londer, 2013. (TK 5105.875 I6 L66 2013)
This book will teach you how to customize your team site’s layout, features, and apps; manage and share ideas, documents, and data; capture and organize content into lists and libraries; automate business processes with built-in workflows; use social features to communicate and collaborate; and publish content using enhanced web content management.
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