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Medical and Research Library News - January 2014


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News and training opportunities
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Interesting journal articles
New books
Free e-books

News and training opportunities

Annual nutrition & health conference
May 5-7, 2014, Addison, TX. The conference assembles internationally-recognized researchers, clinicians, educators, and chefs, all of whose work focuses on the interface between nutrition and healthful living. http://nutritionandhealthconf.org/

APHA 2014 annual meeting & exposition
November 15-19, 2014, New Orleans, LA. The meeting will address current and emerging health science, policy, and practice issues in an effort to prevent disease and promote health. http://www.apha.org/meetings/annual/

CDC student opportunities in public health
Fellowship and internship opportunities for qualified undergraduate and graduate students to gain meaningful experiences in public health settings. http://www.cdc.gov/features/studentopportunities/

Community tool box online TRAIN courses for community health improvement
Online courses to support community health assessment and community health improvement work. The courses can be used by staff from state and local health departments seeking accreditation. http://ctb.ku.edu/en/online-courses

Health across borders: migration, disease, medicine, and public health in a global age
September 18-19, 2014, College Park, MD. The conference will explore the connections between migration, race, disease, and public health. Dr. David Satcher, 16th Surgeon General of the United States, will be the keynote speaker. http://newamerica.umd.edu/conferences/fall2014/overview.php

National Association of Chronic Disease Directors professional development and workforce training center
Provides a variety of training/educational modalities including webinars, training videos, public health lectures and on-line courses in the areas of chronic disease prevention and control. http://www.chronicdisease.org/?page=PDhomepage_Revision2

Public health webinars
List of public health webinars series, upcoming webinars, and archived webinars. http://phpartners.org/educ.html#Webinars

Preventive medicine 2014
February 19-22, 2014, New Orleans, LA. The theme of the meeting is Innovation in Preventive Medicine. http://www.preventivemedicine2014.org/

Cool websites and reports on hot topics*

AHRQ's state snapshots
Provides state-specific health care quality information, including strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement. The goal is to help state officials and their public- and private-sector partners better understand health care quality and disparities in their state. http://nhqrnet.ahrq.gov/inhqrdr/state/select

As flu season becomes widespread, adults 18-64 years old least likely to get flu shots
An analysis released by the Trust for America's Health (TFAH) found that only 35.7 percent of adults ages 18 to 64 years old got the flu shot last season. http://healthyamericans.org/newsroom/releases/?releaseid=300

CDC influenza mobile app available
The CDC Influenza application allows clinicians and public health professionals to find CDC's latest recommendations and influenza activity updates on iPads, iPhones, iPod Touches, and Android devices. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/apps/cdc-influenza-hcp.html

CDC looks back at 2013 health challenges, ahead to 2014 health worries
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's job is to detect health threats, stop outbreaks, and prevent illness and injury. As 2013 comes to a close, America's health protection agency looks back at top five health concerns in 2013 and previews the five health threats that loom for 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2013/p1216-eoy2013.html

Cervical cancer: the preventable gynecologic cancer
Cervical cancer is highly preventable with regular screening tests and follow-up. It also can be cured when found and treated early. Vaccines are available to protect against the most common cause of cervical cancer, human papillomavirus (HPV). http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/dcpc/resources/features/CervicalCancer/

New outbreaks report finds major gaps in country's ability to counter infectious diseases; majority of states reach half or fewer of key indicators
A report released by Trust for America's Health (TFAH) and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) finds the nation's ability to prevent and control infectious disease outbreaks are hampered by outdated systems and limited resources. http://healthyamericans.org/newsroom/releases/?releaseid=298

NIH and NFL tackle concussion research
The National Institutes of Health has selected eight projects to receive support to answer some of the most fundamental problems on traumatic brain injury, including understanding long-term effects of repeated head injuries and improving diagnosis of concussions. http://www.nih.gov/news/health/dec2013/ninds-16.htm

Suicides continue to lead homicides in violent deaths
Data released by the CDC show violent deaths from self-inflicted or interpersonal violence disproportionately affected adults younger than 55, males, and certain minority groups in 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6301a1.htm?s_cid=ss6301a1_w

Interesting journal articles

Associations between intimate partner violence and termination of pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hall M, Chappell LC, Parnell BL, Seed PT, Bewley S. PLoS Med. 2014;11(1):e1001581. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001581.
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) and termination of pregnancy (TOP) are global health concerns, but their interaction is undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between IPV and TOP.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review based on a search of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Ovid Maternity and Infant Care from each database's inception to 21 September 2013 for peer-reviewed articles of any design and language found 74 studies regarding women who had undergone TOP and had experienced at least one domain (physical, sexual, or emotional) of IPV. Prevalence of IPV and association between IPV and TOP were meta-analysed. Sample sizes ranged from eight to 33,385 participants. Worldwide, rates of IPV in the preceding year in women undergoing TOP ranged from 2.5% to 30%. Lifetime prevalence by meta-analysis was shown to be 24.9% (95% CI 19.9% to 30.6%); heterogeneity was high (I (2)>90%), and variation was not explained by study design, quality, or size, or country gross national income per capita. IPV, including history of rape, sexual assault, contraceptive sabotage, and coerced decision-making, was associated with TOP, and with repeat TOPs. By meta-analysis, partner not knowing about the TOP was shown to be significantly associated with IPV (pooled odds ratio 2.97, 95% CI 2.39 to 3.69). Women in violent relationships were more likely to have concealed the TOP from their partner than those who were not. Demographic factors including age, ethnicity, education, marital status, income, employment, and drug and alcohol use showed no strong or consistent mediating effect. Few long-term outcomes were studied. Women welcomed the opportunity to disclose IPV and be offered help. Limitations include study heterogeneity, potential underreporting of both IPV and TOP in primary data sources, and inherent difficulties in validation. CONCLUSIONS: IPV is associated with TOP. Novel public health approaches are required to prevent IPV. TOP services provide an opportune health-based setting to design and test interventions. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

Get excited: reappraising pre-performance anxiety as excitement [published online ahead of print December 23, 2013]. Brooks AW. J Exp Psychol Gen.
Individuals often feel anxious in anticipation of tasks such as speaking in public or meeting with a boss. I find that an overwhelming majority of people believe trying to calm down is the best way to cope with pre-performance anxiety. However, across several studies involving karaoke singing, public speaking, and math performance, I investigate an alternative strategy: reappraising anxiety as excitement. Compared with those who attempt to calm down, individuals who reappraise their anxious arousal as excitement feel more excited and perform better. Individuals can reappraise anxiety as excitement using minimal strategies such as self-talk (e.g., saying "I am excited" out loud) or simple messages (e.g., "get excited"), which lead them to feel more excited, adopt an opportunity mind-set (as opposed to a threat mind-set), and improve their subsequent performance. These findings suggest the importance of arousal congruency during the emotional reappraisal process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Herpes zoster as a risk factor for stroke and TIA: a retrospective cohort study in the UK [published online ahead of print January 8, 2014]. Breuer J, Pacou M, Gauthier A, Brown MM. Neurology.
OBJECTIVES: Stroke and TIA are recognized complications of acute herpes zoster (HZ). In this study, we evaluated HZ as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (stroke and TIA) and myocardial infarction (MI) in a UK population cohort. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 106,601 HZ cases and 213,202 controls matched for age, sex, and general practice was identified from the THIN (The Health Improvement Network) general practice database. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the risks of stroke, TIA, and MI in cases and controls, adjusted for vascular risk factors, including body mass index >30 kg/m2, smoking, cholesterol >6.2 mmol/L, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, intermittent arterial claudication, carotid stenosis, and valvular heart disease, up to 24 years (median 6.3 years) after HZ occurrence. RESULTS: Risk factors for vascular disease were significantly increased in cases of HZ compared with controls. Adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) for TIA and MI but not stroke were increased in all patients with HZ (AHR [95% confidence interval]: 1.15 [1.09-1.21] and 1.10 [1.05-1.16], respectively). However, stroke, TIA, and MI were increased in cases whose HZ occurred when they were younger than 40 years (AHR [95% confidence interval]: 1.74 [1.13-2.66], 2.42 [1.34-4.36], 1.49 [1.04-2.15], respectively). Subjects younger than 40 years were significantly less likely to be asked about vascular risk factors than were older patients (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: HZ is an independent risk factor for vascular disease in the UK population, particularly for stroke, TIA, and MI in subjects affected before the age of 40 years. In older subjects, better ascertainment of vascular risk factors and earlier intervention may explain the reduction in risk of stroke after the occurrence of HZ.

Prophylactic use of a probiotic in the prevention of colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation: a randomized clinical trial [published online ahead of print January 13, 2014]. Indrio F, Di Mauro A, Riezzo G, et al. JAMA Pediatr. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.4367.
IMPORTANCE Infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders that lead to referral to a pediatrician during the first 6 months of life and are often responsible for hospitalization, feeding changes, use of drugs, parental anxiety, and loss of parental working days with relevant social consequences. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life can reduce the onset of colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation in term newborns and thereby reduce the socioeconomic impact of these conditions. DESIGN A prospective, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed on term newborns (age &lt;1 week) born at 9 different neonatal units in Italy between September 1, 2010, and October 30, 2012. SETTING Parents were asked to record in a structured diary the number of episodes of regurgitation, duration of inconsolable crying (minutes per day), number of evacuations per day, number of visits to pediatricians, feeding changes, hospitalizations, visits to a pediatric emergency department for a perceived health emergency, pharmacologic interventions, and loss of parental working days. PARTICIPANTS In total, 589 infants were randomly allocated to receive L reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo daily for 90 days. INTERVENTIONS Prophylactic use of probiotic. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Reduction of daily crying time, regurgitation, and constipation during the first 3 months of life. Cost-benefit analysis of the probiotic supplementation. RESULTS At 3 months of age, the mean duration of crying time (38 vs 71 minutes; P &lt; .01), the mean number of regurgitations per day (2.9 vs 4.6; P &lt; .01), and the mean number of evacuations per day (4.2 vs 3.6; P &lt; .01) for the L reuteri DSM 17938 and placebo groups, respectively, were significantly different. The use of L reuteri DSM 17938 resulted in an estimated mean savings per patient of €88 (US $118.71) for the family and an additional €104 (US $140.30) for the community. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Prophylactic use of L reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life reduced the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders and reduced private and public costs for the management of this condition.

Retinal gene therapy in patients with choroideremia: initial findings from a phase 1/2 clinical trial [published online ahead of print January 15, 2014]. Maclaren RE, Groppe M, Barnard AR, et al. Lancet. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62117-0.
BACKGROUND: Choroideremia is an X-linked recessive disease that leads to blindness due to mutations in the CHM gene, which encodes the Rab escort protein 1 (REP1). We assessed the effects of retinal gene therapy with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector encoding REP1 (AAV.REP1) in patients with this disease. METHODS: In a multicentre clinical trial, six male patients (aged 35-63 years) with choroideremia were administered AAV.REP1 (0•6-1•0×1010 genome particles, subfoveal injection). Visual function tests included best corrected visual acuity, microperimetry, and retinal sensitivity tests for comparison of baseline values with 6 months after surgery. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01461213. FINDINGS: Despite undergoing retinal detachment, which normally reduces vision, two patients with advanced choroideremia who had low baseline best corrected visual acuity gained 21 letters and 11 letters (more than two and four lines of vision). Four other patients with near normal best corrected visual acuity at baseline recovered to within one to three letters. Mean gain in visual acuity overall was 3•8 letters (SE 4•1). Maximal sensitivity measured with dark-adapted microperimetry increased in the treated eyes from 23•0 dB (SE 1•1) at baseline to 25•3 dB (1•3) after treatment (increase 2•3 dB [95% CI 0•8-3•8]). In all patients, over the 6 months, the increase in retinal sensitivity in the treated eyes (mean 1•7 [SE 1•0]) was correlated with the vector dose administered per mm2 of surviving retina (r=0•82, p=0•04). By contrast, small non-significant reductions (p>0•05) were noted in the control eyes in both maximal sensitivity (-0•8 dB [1•5]) and mean sensitivity (-1•6 dB [0•9]). One patient in whom the vector was not administered to the fovea re-established variable eccentric fixation that included the ectopic island of surviving retinal pigment epithelium that had been exposed to vector. INTERPRETATION: The initial results of this retinal gene therapy trial are consistent with improved rod and cone function that overcome any negative effects of retinal detachment. These findings lend support to further assessment of gene therapy in the treatment of choroideremia and other diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, for which intervention should ideally be applied before the onset of retinal thinning.

Silent victims--an epidemic of childhood exposure to domestic violence. Bair-Merritt M, Zuckerman B, Augustyn M, Cronholm PF. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(18):1673-5.
More than 15 million U.S. children live in families affected by intimate partner violence; about 7 million witness severe violence, such as the assault of one parent by another. Exposure to such violence has been linked to higher rates of physical health problems.

Suicide, fatal injuries, and other causes of premature mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury: a 41-year Swedish population study [published online ahead of print January 15, 2014]. Fazel S, Wolf A, Pillas D, Lichtenstein P, Långström N. JAMA Psychiatry. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.3935.
IMPORTANCE Longer-term mortality in individuals who have survived a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not known. OBJECTIVES To examine the relationship between TBI and premature mortality, particularly by external causes, and determine the role of psychiatric comorbidity. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS We studied all persons born in 1954 or later in Sweden who received inpatient and outpatient International Classification of Diseases-based diagnoses of TBI from 1969 to 2009 (n = 218 300). We compared mortality rates 6 months or more after TBI to general population controls matched on age and sex (n = 2 163 190) and to unaffected siblings of patients with TBI (n = 150 513). Furthermore, we specifically examined external causes of death (suicide, injury, or assault). We conducted sensitivity analyses to investigate whether mortality rates differed by sex, age at death, severity (including concussion), and different follow-up times after diagnosis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of premature death by external causes in patients with TBI compared with general population controls. RESULTS Among those who survived 6 months after TBI, we found a 3-fold increased odds of mortality (AOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 3.0-3.4) compared with general population controls and an adjusted increased odds of mortality of 2.6 (95% CI, 2.3-2.8) compared with unaffected siblings. Risks of mortality from external causes were elevated, including for suicide (AOR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.9-3.7), injuries (AOR, 4.3; 95% CI, 3.8-4.8), and assault (AOR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.7-5.7). Among those with TBI, absolute rates of death were high in those with any psychiatric or substance abuse comorbidity (3.8% died prematurely) and those with solely substance abuse (6.2%) compared with those without comorbidity (0.5%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Traumatic brain injury is associated with substantially elevated risks of premature mortality, particularly for suicide, injuries, and assaults, even after adjustment for sociodemographic and familial factors. Current clinical guidelines may need revision to reduce mortality risks beyond the first few months after injury and address high rates of psychiatric comorbidity and substance abuse.

Workplace sitting and height-adjustable workstations: a randomized controlled trial. Neuhaus M, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Owen N, Eakin EG. Am J Prev Med. 2014;46(1):30-40.
BACKGROUND: Desk-based office employees sit for most of their working day. To address excessive sitting as a newly identified health risk, best practice frameworks suggest a multi-component approach. However, these approaches are resource intensive and knowledge about their impact is limited. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of a multi-component intervention to reduce workplace sitting time, to a height-adjustable workstations-only intervention, and to a comparison group (usual practice). DESIGN: Three-arm quasi-randomized controlled trial in three separate administrative units of the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Data were collected between January and June 2012 and analyzed the same year. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Desk-based office workers aged 20-65 (multi-component intervention, n=16; workstations-only, n=14; comparison, n=14). INTERVENTION: The multi-component intervention comprised installation of height-adjustable workstations and organizational-level (management consultation, staff education, manager e-mails to staff) and individual-level (face-to-face coaching, telephone support) elements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Workplace sitting time (minutes/8-hour workday) assessed objectively via activPAL3 devices worn for 7 days at baseline and 3 months (end-of-intervention). RESULTS: At baseline, the mean proportion of workplace sitting time was approximately 77% across all groups (multi-component group 366 minutes/8 hours [SD=49]; workstations-only group 373 minutes/8 hours [SD=36], comparison 365 minutes/8 hours [SD=54]). Following intervention and relative to the comparison group, workplace sitting time in the multi-component group was reduced by 89 minutes/8-hour workday (95% CI=-130, -47 minutes; p<0.001) and 33 minutes in the workstations-only group (95% CI=-74, 7 minutes, p=0.285). CONCLUSIONS: A multi-component intervention was successful in reducing workplace sitting. These findings may have important practical and financial implications for workplaces targeting sitting time reductions.

New books

Employee engagement for dummies. Kelleher, Robert W. Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.

Jump start JavaScript. Pehlivanian, Ara. Victoria, Australia : SitePoint, 2013.

The microbial challenge : a public health perspective. 3rd ed. Krasner, Robert I. Burlington, MA : Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2014.

Microsoft Office Project 2007 step by step. Chatfield, Carl S. Redmond, WA : Microsoft Press, 2007.

Microsoft Project 2007 bible. Marmel, Elaine J. Hoboken, NJ : Wiley, 2007.

The practical Drucker : applying the wisdom of the world's greatest management thinker. Cohen, William A. New York : American Management Association, 2014.

The six disciplines of breakthrough learning: how to turn training and development into business results. 2nd ed. Wick, Calhoun. San Francisco, CA : Pfeiffer, 2010.

Teaching and learning at a distance : foundations of distance education. 5th ed. Boston : Allyn & Bacon, 2012.

The trusted leader : building the relationships that make government work. 2nd ed. Washington, DC : CQ Press, 2012.

Veteran suicide : a public health imperative. Washington, DC : American Public Health Association, 2013.

Virtuous leaders : strategy, character, and influence in the 21st century. Kilburg, Richard R. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association, 2012.

What keeps leaders up at night : recognizing and resolving your most troubling management issues. Lipkin, Nicole A. New York : American Management Association, 2013.

Free e-books

Identifying and addressing the needs of adolescents and young adults with cancer: workshop summary (2013)
Identifying and Addressing the Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer is the summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine's National Cancer Policy Forum in July 2013 to facilitate discussion about gaps and challenges in caring for adolescent and young adult cancer patients and potential strategies and actions to improve the quality of their care. The workshop featured invited presentations from clinicians and other advocates working to improve the care and outcomes for the adolescent and young adult population with cancer.

Neurodegeneration: exploring commonalities across diseases: workshop summary (2013)
Neurodegeneration: Exploring Commonalities Across Diseases is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders in Spring 2012 to explore commonalities across neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Participants from academia; pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries; government agencies such as the National Institutes of Health and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA); patient advocacy groups; and private foundations presented and identified potential opportunities for collaboration across the respective research and development communities. This report identifies and discusses commonalities related to genetic and cellular mechanisms, identifies areas of fundamental science needed to facilitate therapeutics development, and explores areas of potential collaboration among the respective research communities. http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18341&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+12.17.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=

Review of NASA's evidence reports on human health risks: 2013 letter report (2014)
This letter report reviews three evidence reports and examines the quality of the evidence, analysis, and overall construction of each report; identifies existing gaps in report content; and provides suggestions for additional sources of expert input. The report analyzes each evidence report's overall quality, which included readability; internal consistency; the source and breadth of cited evidence; identification of existing knowledge and research gaps; authorship expertise; and, if applicable, response to recommendations from the 2008 IOM letter report.

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Last updated September 16, 2014