The following list includes peer-reviewed research articles that have been written by staff of the Texas Department of State Health Services since its formation in September 2004. For more information about these articles or for a full-text copy, please contact the Medical and Research Library by e-mail at email@example.com by calling (512) 776-7559.
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2016 Articles (in date order with most recent first)
Fortenberry GZ, Beckman J, Schwartz A, Bojes H9, et al. Magnitude and characteristics of acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US: 1998-2013. Environ Res. 2016 Jan 11;146:191-199. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.01.003.
Background: Paraquat and diquat are among the most commonly used herbicides in the world. Objectives: Determine the magnitude, characteristics, and root causes for acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US METHODS: Illnesses associated with paraquat or diquat exposure occurring from 1998 through 2011 were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program, the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) Pesticide Illness Surveillance Program (PISP), and the Incident Data System (IDS). Cases identified by the National Poison Data System (NPDS) were reviewed for the years 1998-2003 and 2006-2013. Results: A total of 300 paraquat- and 144 diquat-related acute illnesses were identified by SENSOR, PISP, and IDS. NPDS identified 693 paraquat- and 2128 diquat-related acute illnesses. In SENSOR/PISP/IDS, illnesses were commonly low severity (paraquat=41%; diquat=81%); however, SENSOR/PISP/IDS identified 24 deaths caused by paraquat and 5 deaths associated with diquat. Nineteen paraquat-related deaths were due to ingestion, seven of which were unintentional, often due to improper storage in beverage bottles. In SENSOR/PISP/IDS, paraquat and diquat-related acute illnesses were work-related in 68% (n=203) and 29% (n=42) of cases, respectively. When herbicide application site was known, the vast majority of acute paraquat-related illnesses (81%) arose from agricultural applications. Common root causes of illness were failure to use adequate personal protective equipment (PPE), application equipment failure, and spill/splash of herbicide. Conclusions: Although the magnitude of acute paraquat/diquat-related illnesses was relatively low, several fatalities were identified. Many illnesses could be prevented through stricter compliance with label requirements (e.g. ensuring proper herbicide storage and PPE use), and through enhanced training of certified applicators.
Cervantes DT, Ball JM, Edwards J, Payne S. Horses naturally infected with EIAV harbor 2 distinct SU populations but are monophyletic with respect to IN. Virus Genes. 2016 Jan 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) causes lifelong infections ranging from acutely fatal, to chronic, to asymptomatic. Within infected animals, EIAV is found as a quasispecies. Many experimental studies on EIAV, carried out in the U.S. over the past 70 years, have used either the highly virulent Wyoming (EIAVWYO) field strain or various derivatives of that strain. These infections have provided insights into the variety of genetic changes that accumulate in the env gene and LTR in experimentally infected horses. In the current study, we obtained EIAV sequences from blood samples collected from naturally infected Texas horses between 2000 and 2002. We found surface (SU) and long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences clearly related to EIAVWYO and its cell culture-adapted derivatives. Some blood samples yielded SU or LTR sequences belonging to 2 discrete clusters. In these cases, SU and LTR variation between animals was no greater than sequence variation within animals. In contrast, a portion of integrase (IN) was more homogeneous within animals than between animals. These results suggest that specific selective pressures are applied to SU and LTR sequences, potentially driving generation of two distinct sequence clusters within a horse. We speculate that viruses in one cluster may be more highly expressed and easily transmitted while those in the second cluster support long-term inapparent infection. The presence of homogeneous IN sequences within a horse supports the hypothesis that SU and LTR sequences diverged after the initial infection.