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Medical and Research Library News - May 2021

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Training opportunities
Websites and reports on trending topics
Journal articles of note           

May 2021

Training opportunities

Note: The following webinars and online classes are not affiliated with DSHS or the DSHS Library. They are presented here as opportunities to learn more information of interest to public health personnel. All times listed are in Central Daylight Time.

May 5, 2021; 3-4 p.m. From paper to digital: Los Angeles County and Healthvana deliver millions of COVID-19 vaccination health records and launch the nation’s 1st vaccination record in an Apple wallet. There has been a lot of press and uncertainty in the U.S. around proof of your COVID-19 vaccination status and so called "vaccine passports." Lost in the controversy is the opportunity for city and county governments to leverage the benefits of modern technology to improve people's access to their personal health record. Join this webinar from the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO) to hear how Los Angeles County is partnering with NACCHO's Platinum Affiliate Healthvana to utilize HIPAA-compliant technology to improve vaccination rollout (e.g., digital vaccination health records, multi-language patient support, and real time messaging to communicate with hundreds of thousands of people about important updates). You’ll also learn how Los Angeles County and Healthvana are reducing exposure notification time from a few days to a few minutes with a digital contact tracing feature in conjunction with results delivery. https://naccho.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_ggaT_tsUQNWwidDP1Bbq1A

May 11, 2021; 12-1 p.m. Going viral for hepatitis: Getting back to the basics. Hear about updated hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing guidelines and recommendations, and why changes were needed. Speakers will also share how others are implementing the updated HCV testing recommendations. Hosted by the Health Resources & Services Administration (HRSA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). https://hrsa-gov.zoomgov.com/meeting/register/vJItc-qppzkpH2AzRJJAD84QKRRbUE-kCjw

May 18, 2021; 12-1 p.m. Addressing financial & legal problems to improve the mental health of adults & children during the pandemic. In this webinar presented by the National Center for Medical Legal Partnership, subject matter experts in social determinants of health and medical-legal partnership interventions will discuss: 1) how financial strains such as high debt, low income and unemployment are associated with suicide attempts and should be considered key factors when assessing mental health interventions; and 2) how legal services delivered alongside social, medical, and behavioral health services can help improve the overall health and well-being of children. https://gwu-edu.zoom.us/meeting/register/tJUkd-qvpjgoHtZucHLPhvt0hfcUpZtNkw9O

May 19, 2021; 12-1 p.m. Perinatal mental health and trauma in the Latinx community. This professional education session will focus on trauma-informed care from a mental health perspective when working with birthing people within the Latinx community. We will discuss the impact on perinatal mental health as it relates to culture, barriers, and history of the medical model that validates fear by the community. Strategies and tools will be discussed in this hour session, along with a Q&A. Presented by the Partnership for Maternal & Child Health. https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/5813772599605775375

May 26, 2021; 12-1 p.m. Risk, resilience, and depression in fathers from diverse backgrounds. Fathers are important members of the family unit. However, research studies in the fields of family psychology and maternal and child health have historically not included dads, especially those from low-income and diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. While this is slowly beginning to change, many research gaps still exist regarding paternal health and well-being. This talk will present research findings from the Community and Child Health Network (CCHN), a National Institute of Health-funded, community-based participatory research project that investigated racial/ethnic disparities in maternal and child health in 5 sites across the United States. This talk will (a) describe how paternal depression negatively affects the father and family, (b) identify risk factors for depression in low-income Black and Latino fathers, (c) discuss resilience resources that may protect fathers from depression, (d) recommend practical solutions for improving paternal mental health and familial well-being. Presented by the Partnership for Maternal & Child Health. https://register.gotowebinar.com/register/3788811930335524623

Websites and reports on trending topics

AGRICOLA - A bibliographic resource with millions of citations relating to the field of agriculture for journal articles, book chapters, theses, patents, and technical reports to support agricultural research. https://agricola.nal.usda.gov/

Global Perspectives on Improving Chronic Disease Prevention and Management in Diverse Settings - The goal of this collection from Preventing Chronic Disease is to assemble recently published articles that focus on innovative and effective strategies to improve chronic disease outcomes in diverse populations globally. As efforts to improve global health have accelerated in response to achieving sustainable development goals, chronic disease continues to be a major contributor to poor health outcomes, which often lead to reduction in quality of life, including associated increases in health care costs. Reducing the burden of chronic diseases remains a global challenge, requiring collaborations across academic disciplines and economic sectors. As discussed in the articles included in this collection, certain individual and societal factors are effective in interventions against chronic diseases. https://www.cdc.gov/pcd/collections/Global_Perspectives.htm

How to talk about COVID-19 vaccines with friends and family - COVID-19 vaccines are new, and it is normal for people to have questions about them. The sheer amount of information—and misinformation—about COVID-19 vaccines can be overwhelming to anyone. You can help by listening without judgement and identifying the root of their concerns. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/talk-about-vaccines.html?permalink=536A2144D875FF22B7D0DD419E618A6D0C7B20294BABA40038A3BC1FB0A04B4F

Population Health in Rural America in 2020 - To explore issues related to population health in rural America, the Roundtable on Population Health Improvement of the Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a public virtual workshop, "Population Health in Rural America in 2020" on June 24-25, 2020. The workshop planning committee was composed of rural health experts representing public health, health care, and tribal health. Presentations and discussions focused on rural America in context, rural health vital signs, rural health care in action, assessment and implementation strategies for improving the health and health equity in rural populations, and rural health policy. This Proceedings of a Workshop summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop. https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25989/population-health-in-rural-america-in-2020-proceedings-of-a?utm_source=NASEM+News+and+Publications&utm_campaign=112c839a5f-What%27s_New_2021_04_26&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_96101de015-112c839a5f-106835813&goal=0_96101de015-112c839a5f-106835813&mc_cid=112c839a5f&mc_eid=372dfada67

Journal articles of note

Belay ED, Abrams J, Oster ME, et al. Trends in geographic and temporal distribution of US children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome during the COVID-19 pandemic [published online ahead of print, 2021 Apr 6]. JAMA Pediatr. 2021. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0630
Importance: Multiple inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs in association with the COVID-19 pandemic.
Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and geographic and temporal distribution of the largest cohort of patients with MIS-C in the United States to date.
Design, setting, and participants: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical and laboratory data collected from patients with MIS-C. The analysis included patients with illness onset from March 2020 to January 2021 and met MIS-C case definition.
Main outcomes and measures: Geographic and temporal distribution of MIS-C was compared with that of COVID-19 nationally, by region, and level of urbanicity by county. Clinical and laboratory findings and changes over time were described by age group and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19.
Results: A total of 1733 patients with MIS-C were identified; 994 (57.6%) were male and 1117 (71.3%) were Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black. Gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, and conjunctival hyperemia were reported by 53% (n = 931) to 67% (n = 1153) of patients. A total of 937 patients (54%) had hypotension or shock, and 1009 (58.2%) were admitted for intensive care. Cardiac dysfunction was reported in 484 patients (31.0%), pericardial effusion in 365 (23.4%), myocarditis in 300 (17.3%), and coronary artery dilatation or aneurysms in 258 (16.5%). Patients aged 0 to 4 years had the lowest proportion of severe manifestations, although 171 patients (38.4%) had hypotension or shock and 197 (44.3%) were admitted for intensive care. Patients aged 18 to 20 years had the highest proportions with myocarditis (17 [30.9%]), pneumonia (20 [36.4%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (10 [18.2%]), and polymerase chain reaction positivity (39 [70.9%]). These older adolescents also had the highest proportion reporting preceding COVID-19-like illness (63%). Nationally, the first 2 MIS-C peaks followed the COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks. The cumulative MIS-C incidence per 100 000 persons younger than 21 years was 2.1 and varied from 0.2 to 6.3 by state. Twenty-four patients (1.4%) died.
Conclusions and relevance: In this cross-sectional study of a large cohort of patients with MIS-C, 2 peaks that followed COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks were identified. The geographic and temporal association of MIS-C with the COVID-19 pandemic suggested that MIS-C resulted from delayed immunologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical manifestations varied by age and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19.

Diaz D, Benjamin RH, Navarro Sanchez ML, et al. Patterns of congenital anomalies among individuals with trisomy 13 in Texas [published online ahead of print, 2021 Mar 22]. Am J Med Genet A. 2021. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.62175
Few population-based studies have analyzed patterns of co-occurring birth defects among those with trisomy 13. We evaluated the frequency of all possible combinations of any one, two, three, or four additional co-occurring birth defects among 736 individuals with trisomy 13 using data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for deliveries during 1999-2014. We calculated the observed-to-expected ratio for each combination, adjusting for the known tendency for birth defects to cluster non-specifically. To address potential ascertainment differences among live births and non-live births, we repeated analyses specifically among live births. The combination of defects with the largest observed-to-expected ratio was microcephalus, reduction deformities of brain (e.g., holoprosencephaly), anomalies of nose, and polydactyly. As expected, most of the highest 30 observed-to-expected ratios involved combinations with documented features of trisomy 13, including defects of the scalp (e.g., aplasia cutis) and heart. Results were similar among sensitivity analyses restricted to live births. Our findings may help further delineate the phenotypic spectrum for trisomy 13 and may inform future research related to improving screening and counseling for the condition.

Dunn M, Peterson Johnson E, Smith B, Cooper M, Bhakta N. Perspectives on workforce development needs for community health workers (CHWs): Results from a statewide survey of CHW employers [published online ahead of print, 2021 Apr 13]. J Community Health. 2021;1-9. doi:10.1007/s10900-021-00986-1
We conducted a survey of community health worker (CHW) employers in Texas to understand the employment context and workforce development needs of Texas CHWs. An electronic, mixed-methods survey was emailed to 841 CHW employers across Texas in Spring 2020. The survey consisted of 51 questions. The response rate was 22% (n = 182). Responses were analyzed using SPSS, Microsoft Excel, and N.Vivo. We found that most CHW employers directly employ their CHWs, and CHWs are typically part of a multidisciplinary healthcare team. Most respondents required their CHWs be certified by the state's health department and have at least a high school diploma or GED. The most common services that CHWs provide are health education/promotion and information referral. The main health issues that CHWs address are diabetes, hypertension, and mental/behavioral health. Current CHW workforce development needs include continued training on topics including chronic disease self-management and health promotion. CHW employers differ in their capacity to implement workforce development activities. There is significant variety in the employment context and workforce development needs of CHWs across Texas. Results reinforce previous findings on the need for specialized, continuing training for CHWs and the development of pathways, resources, and opportunities that could advance the CHW profession even more. These results can inform those interested in employing CHWs in their CHW program development. Findings from this study can be used to guide development of tailored curriculum for continuing education units, specialized certifications, or other professional development resources for CHWs.

Stone KW, Felkner M, Garza E, et al. Changes to timeliness and completeness of infectious disease reporting in Texas after implementation of an epidemiologic capacity program [published online ahead of print, 2021 Apr 30]. Public Health Rep. 2021. doi:10.1177/00333549211009490
Objectives: The objective of this study was to characterize the changes in timeliness and completeness of disease case reporting in Texas in response to an increasing number of foodborne illnesses and high-consequence infectious disease investigations and the Texas Department of State Health Services' new state-funded epidemiologist (SFE) program.
Methods: We extracted electronic disease case reporting data on 42 conditions from 2012 through 2016 in all local health department (LHD) jurisdictions. We analyzed data on median time for processing reports and percentage of complete reports across time and between SFE and non-SFE jurisdictions using Mann-Whitney t tests and z scores.
Results: The median time of processing improved from 13 days to 10 days from 2012 to 2016, and the percentage of disease case reports that were complete improved from 19.6% to 27.7%. Most reports were for foodborne illnesses; both timeliness (11 to 7 days) and completeness (20.9% to 23.5%) improved for these reports.
Conclusions: Disease reporting improvements in timeliness and completeness were associated with the SFE program and its enhancement of epidemiologic capacity. SFEs were shown to improve surveillance metrics in LHDs, even in jurisdictions with a high volume of case reports. Adding epidemiologist positions in LHDs produces a tangible outcome of improved disease surveillance.

Vallabhaneni S, Huang JY, Grass JE, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles to predict the presence of carbapenemase genes among carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa [published online ahead of print, 2021 Mar 24]. J Clin Microbiol. 2021. doi:10.1128/JCM.02874-20
Background: Detection of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) with carbapenamase-producing (CP) genes is critical for preventing transmission. Our objective was to assess whether certain antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) profiles can efficiently identify CP-CRPA.
Methods: We defined CRPA as P. aeruginosa with imipenem or meropenem MICs of ?8?g/ml; CP-CRPA were CRPA with CP genes (bla KPC/bla IMP/bla NDM/bla VIM). We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of AST profiles to detect CP-CRPA among CRPA collected by CDC's Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (AR Lab Network) and the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) during 2017-2019.
Results: Three percent (195/6192) of AR Lab Network CRPA were CP-CRPA. Among CRPA, adding not susceptible (NS) to cefepime or ceftazidime to the definition had 91% sensitivity and 50% specificity for identifying CP-CRPA; NS to ceftolozane-tazobactam had 100% sensitivity and 86% specificity. Of 965 EIP CRPA evaluated for CP genes, seven CP-CRPA were identified; 6 of 7 were NS to cefepime and ceftazidime, and all 7 were NS to ceftolozane-tazobactam. Among 4182 EIP isolates, clinical laboratory AST results were available for 96% for cefepime, 80% for ceftazidime, and 4% for ceftolozane-tazobactam. The number of CRPA needed to test (NNT) to identify one CP-CRPA decreased from 138 to 64 if the definition of NS to cefepime or ceftazidime was used and to 7 with NS to ceftolozane-tazobactam.
Conclusion: Adding not susceptible to cefepime or ceftazidime to CRPA carbapenemase testing criteria would reduce the NNT by half and can be implemented in most clinical laboratories; adding not susceptible to ceftolozane-tazobactam could be even more predictive once AST for this drug is more widely available.

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Last updated May 7, 2021