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News and training opportunities
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Interesting journal articles
News and training opportunities
Addressing serious mental illness: effective prevention, treatment, and recovery strategies
Webinar series that will describe new and emerging practices across a variety of mental health services. http://www.samhsa.gov/addressing-serious-mental-illness-webinar-series
Change management and PI: the small LHD's perspective
June 24, 2015, 3:30-5:00 PM EDT. During this webinar, NACCHO will provide an overview of change management and concrete strategies for building an infrastructure for performance improvement and empowering staff so they are motivated and able to engage in accreditation and quality improvement. https://events-na10.adobeconnect.com/content/connect/c1/1053915029/en/events/event/shared/default_template/event_landing.html?sco-id=1158239580&_charset_=utf-8
Comprehensive prevention program effectively reduces falls among older people
Families and physicians have a new tool in the fight against falls -- a comprehensive prevention program developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that reduces both falls and resulting use of long-term care such as nursing homes. http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2015pres/06/20150608a.html
New trial tests whether TB shot fights type 1 diabetes
Researchers will look at effects in people with longstanding disease. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152986.html
Public health pathways
Searchable database of domestic and international public health training opportunities for pre-med students, medical students, residents, and early career physicians. https://www.aamc.org/students/public-health-training/385442/public-health-all.html
Rates of new melanomas - deadly skin cancers - have doubled over last three decades
Melanoma rates doubled between 1982 and 2011 but comprehensive skin cancer prevention programs could prevent 20 percent of new cases between 2020 and 2030, according to CDC's Vital Signs report. http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2015/p0602-melanoma-cancer.html
What works: evidence-based interventions for your community
What Works fact sheets on different public health topics that provide colorful, easy-to-read summaries of Community Preventive Services Task Force findings and systematic reviews. The fact sheets can be used as handouts for educational activities, presentations, and exhibits. http://www.thecommunityguide.org/about/whatworks.html
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
2013 cancer screening use data show no progress toward meeting Healthy People 2020 targets
An MMWR study shows that the most recent US data about the use of cancer screening reveal no progress toward meeting Healthy People 2020 targets. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6417a4.htm?s_cid=mm6417a4_w
World's largest open-source science project to understand the microbial diversity of the Human gut. Learn which microbes live in your gut, skin & mouth. Join over 9,000 people, get a home sampling kit and support the research. http://humanfoodproject.com/americangut/
ASPPH launches redesign of This is Public Health
The Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH) has launched the redesign of thisispublichealth.org that brands public health and raises awareness of how public health affects individuals, families, communities, and populations. http://www.aspph.org/introducing-the-new-thisispublichealth-org/
CDC tweaking flu vaccine for better protection
Next season's shot includes last year's missing strain. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152929.html
Immune system reset may halt multiple sclerosis progression
Three-year results from a clinical trial suggest that depleting and then re-establishing the immune system can alleviate a type of early-stage multiple sclerosis (MS). http://www.nih.gov/researchmatters/january2015/01122015reset.htm
Stroke ages brain by 8 years, study finds
Memory impaired, thinking speed slowed in those who suffered brain attack. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152980.html
Superior visual ability found early in children with autism
Researchers suggest above-average perception at 9 months might be a clue to the disorder. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153031.html
Interesting journal articles
Buckley JP, Hedge A, Yates T, et al. The sedentary office: a growing case for change towards better health and productivity. Expert statement commissioned by Public Health England and the Active Working Community Interest Company [published online ahead of print June 1, 2015]. Br J Sports Med. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-094618.
An international group of experts was invited by Public Health England and a UK community interest company (Active Working CIC) to provide guidelines for employers to promote the avoidance of prolonged periods of sedentary work. The set of recommendations was developed from the totality of the current evidence, including long-term epidemiological studies and interventional studies of getting workers to stand and/or move more frequently. The evidence was ranked in quality using the four levels of the American College of Sports Medicine. The derived guidance is as follows: for those occupations which are predominantly desk based, workers should aim to initially progress towards accumulating 2 h/day of standing and light activity (light walking) during working hours, eventually progressing to a total accumulation of 4 h/day (prorated to part-time hours). To achieve this, seated-based work should be regularly broken up with standing-based work, the use of sit-stand desks, or the taking of short active standing breaks. Along with other health promotion goals (improved nutrition, reducing alcohol, smoking and stress), companies should also promote among their staff that prolonged sitting, aggregated from work and in leisure time, may significantly and independently increase the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and premature mortality. It is appreciated that these recommendations should be interpreted in relation to the evidence from which they were derived, largely observational and retrospective studies, or short-term interventional studies showing acute cardiometabolic changes. While longer term intervention studies are required, the level of consistent evidence accumulated to date, and the public health context of rising chronic diseases, suggest initial guidelines are justified. We hope these guidelines stimulate future research, and that greater precision will be possible within future iterations.
Najt P, Wang F, Spencer L, et al. Anterior cortical development during adolescence in bipolar disorder [published online ahead of print April 6, 2015]. Biol Psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.03.026.
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence supports a neurodevelopmental model for bipolar disorder (BD), with adolescence as a critical period in its development. Developmental abnormalities of anterior paralimbic and heteromodal frontal cortices, key structures in emotional regulation processes and central in BD, are implicated. However, few longitudinal studies have been conducted, limiting understanding of trajectory alterations in BD. In this study, we performed longitudinal neuroimaging of adolescents with and without BD and assessed volume changes over time, including changes in tissue overall and within gray and white matter. Larger decreases over time in anterior cortical volumes in the adolescents with BD were hypothesized. Gray matter decreases and white matter increases are typically observed during adolescence in anterior cortices. It was hypothesized that volume decreases over time in BD would reflect alterations in those processes, showing larger gray matter contraction and decreased white matter expansion. METHODS: Two high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained approximately 2 years apart for 35 adolescents with bipolar I disorder (BDI) and 37 healthy adolescents. Differences over time between groups were investigated for volume overall and specifically for gray and white matter. RESULTS: Relative to healthy adolescents, adolescents with BDI showed greater volume contraction over time in a region including insula and orbitofrontal, rostral, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (p < .05, corrected), including greater gray matter contraction and decreased white matter expansion over time, in the BD compared with the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support neurodevelopmental abnormalities during adolescence in BDI in anterior cortices, including altered developmental trajectories of anterior gray and white matter.
Ringh M, Rosenqvist M, Hollenberg J, et al. Mobile-phone dispatch of laypersons for CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(24):2316-25. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1406038.
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed by bystanders is associated with increased survival rates among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We investigated whether rates of bystander-initiated CPR could be increased with the use of a mobile-phone positioning system that could instantly locate mobile-phone users and dispatch lay volunteers who were trained in CPR to a patient nearby with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: We conducted a blinded, randomized, controlled trial in Stockholm from April 2012 through December 2013. A mobile-phone positioning system that was activated when ambulance, fire, and police services were dispatched was used to locate trained volunteers who were within 500 m of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; volunteers were then dispatched to the patients (the intervention group) or not dispatched to them (the control group). The primary outcome was bystander-initiated CPR before the arrival of ambulance, fire, and police services. RESULTS: A total of 5989 lay volunteers who were trained in CPR were recruited initially, and overall 9828 were recruited during the study. The mobile-phone positioning system was activated in 667 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: 46% (306 patients) in the intervention group and 54% (361 patients) in the control group. The rate of bystander-initiated CPR was 62% (188 of 305 patients) in the intervention group and 48% (172 of 360 patients) in the control group (absolute difference for intervention vs. control, 14 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 6 to 21; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A mobile-phone positioning system to dispatch lay volunteers who were trained in CPR was associated with significantly increased rates of bystander-initiated CPR among persons with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
Sandin S, Schendel D, Magnusson P. Autism risk associated with parental age and with increasing difference in age between the parents June 9, 2015. Mol Psychiatry. doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.70.
Advancing paternal and maternal age have both been associated with risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the shape of the association remains unclear, and results on the joint associations is lacking. This study tests if advancing paternal and maternal ages are independently associated with ASD risk and estimates the functional form of the associations. In a population-based cohort study from five countries (Denmark, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Western Australia) comprising 5 766 794 children born 1985-2004 and followed up to the end of 2004-2009, the relative risk (RR) of ASD was estimated by using logistic regression and splines. Our analyses included 30 902 cases of ASD. Advancing paternal and maternal age were each associated with increased RR of ASD after adjusting for confounding and the other parent's age (mothers 40-49 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.24), P-value<0.001; fathers⩾50 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.66 (95% CI: 1.49-1.85), P-value<0.001). Younger maternal age was also associated with increased risk for ASD (mothers <20 years vs 20-29 years, RR=1.18 (95% CI: 1.08-1.29), P-value<0.001). There was a joint effect of maternal and paternal age with increasing risk of ASD for couples with increasing differences in parental ages. We did not find any support for a modifying effect by the sex of the offspring. In conclusion, as shown in multiple geographic regions, increases in ASD was not only limited to advancing paternal or maternal age alone but also to differences parental age including younger or older similarly aged parents as well as disparately aged parents.
Trauer JM, Qian MY, Doyle JS, W Rajaratnam SM, Cunnington D. Cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print June 9, 2015]. Ann Intern Med. doi: 10.7326/M14-2841.
Background: Because psychological approaches are likely to produce sustained benefits without the risk for tolerance or adverse effects associated with pharmacologic approaches, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) is now commonly recommended as first-line treatment for chronic insomnia. Purpose: To determine the efficacy of CBT-i on diary measures of overnight sleep in adults with chronic insomnia. Data Sources: Searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed Clinical Queries from inception to 31 March 2015, supplemented with manual screening. Study Selection: Randomized, controlled trials assessing the efficacy of face-to-face, multimodal CBT-i compared with inactive comparators on overnight sleep in adults with chronic insomnia, with studies of insomnia comorbid with medical, sleep, or psychiatric disorders excluded. Data Extraction: Study characteristics, quality, and data were assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Main outcome measures were sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), and sleep efficiency (SE%). Data Synthesis: Among 292 citations and 91 full-text articles reviewed, 20 studies (1162 participants [64% female; mean age, 56 years]) were included. Approaches to CBT-i incorporated at least 3 of the following: cognitive therapy, stimulus control, sleep restriction, sleep hygiene, and relaxation. At the posttreatment time point, SOL improved by 19.03 (95% CI, 14.12 to 23.93) minutes, WASO improved by 26.00 (CI, 15.48 to 36.52) minutes, TST improved by 7.61 (CI, -0.51 to 15.74) minutes, and SE% improved by 9.91% (CI, 8.09% to 11.73%), and changes seemed to be sustained at later time points. No adverse outcomes were reported. Limitation: Our narrow inclusion criteria limited applicability to patients with comorbid insomnia and other sleep problems, and the accuracy of estimates at later time points was less clear. Conclusion: CBT-i is an effective treatment for adults with chronic insomnia, with clinically meaningful effect sizes.
eBooks by EBSCO is one of the TexShare databases and contains over 32,000 eBooks on a wide range of subjects. This database is only accessible to state agency employees. You may access the full text of eBooks from your computer or you may download/checkout titles to most popular portable devices. The library continues to add titles to this collection. Please see below for a list of titles recently added:
- Chess not checkers: elevate your leadership game
- Ecological public health : reshaping the conditions for good health
- Environmental tracking for public health surveillance
- Happywork : a business parable about the journey to teamwork, profit, and purpose
- Health education : critical perspectives
- Health issues in diverse cultures
- Health program management : from development through evaluation
- Health promotion settings : principles and practice
- Introduction to public health
- Introduction to the US food system : public health, environment, and equity
- Medical advance, public health, and social evolution
- Modeling behavior in complex public health systems : simulations and games for action and evaluation
- Public health policy : issues, theories, and advocacy
- The compound effect : multiplying your success, one simple step at a time
- The politics of public health in the United States
- Tipping points : modelling social problems and health
To view FAQs, Help Sheets, User Guides, and Tutorials, go to http://support.epnet.com/ebooks/. If you have any questions, please contact the library at email@example.com or call (512) 776-7559 or toll-free 1-888-963-7111 x7559.
*For More Information: Employees may contact the Medical and Research Library at firstname.lastname@example.org, call 512-776-7559, or come by Moreton Building, Room M-652 to borrow a book, receive password access to a journal, receive other research assistance, or obtain full-text of the articles mentioned in this month's news. If you are not located on the main campus in Austin, simply let us know what you would like to borrow and we will mail it to you.
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