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Medical and Research Library News - November 2013


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News and training opportunities
Cool websites and reports on hot topics*
Interesting journal articles
New books
Free e-books

News and training opportunities

Midwest Center for Life-Long Learning in Public Health Online: training modules in core public health concepts. Most courses are free, but some are fee-based.  Many offer CEUs. http://cpheo.sph.umn.edu/mclph/

NACCHO Model Practice Lunch and Learn Webinars: These 45 minute presentations are an opportunity to learn about and discuss programs with Model Practice Winners. After a presentation about the practice, participants can ask questions and discuss how to replicate the practice in their communities. http://www.naccho.org/topics/modelpractices/lunch-and-learn.cfm

National Handwashing Awareness Week is from December 4 - 10, 2013. Proper hand hygiene is the best way to prevent outbreaks and transmission of antimicrobial-resistant organisms in healthcare facilities and reduce overall infection rates. You can find free promotional materials at the following web sites: http://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/training/interactiveeducation/index2.htm

Cool websites and reports on hot topics*

DiversityRx supports the work of health care providers, policymakers, researchers, and advocates to improve the accessibility and quality of health care for minority, immigrant, and indigenous communities. The site provides information on cultural healthcare issues including cultural competence professional development. http://www.diversityrx.org/

Extensive study on concussions in youth sports finds 'culture of resistance' for self-reporting injury; not enough evidence to support claim that helmets reduce concussion risk: Young athletes in the U.S. face a "culture of resistance" to reporting when they might have a concussion and to complying with treatment plans, which could endanger their well-being, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. The committee found little evidence that current sports helmet designs reduce the risk of concussions. http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=18377

Green & healthy homes initiative: Works to create green and healthy homes by working with government leaders to enact real, substantive policy changes. http://www.greenandhealthyhomes.org/

Large study to examine if vitamin D prevents diabetes: A clinical trial has begun to determine if taking a vitamin D supplement would help those who are pre-diabetic and at risk for developing type 2 diabetes to delay or prevent the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. http://www.nih.gov/news/health/oct2013/niddk-21.htm

Malaria cases in U.S. reach 40-year high: Increasing numbers of malaria cases reported in the U.S. serve as a reminder to travelers to countries with malaria: think ahead and take steps to protect yourself from this potentially fatal, but preventable disease. http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2013/p1031-malaria-cases.html

SAMHSA releases behavioral health, U.S., 2012 report: The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) released a report entitled Behavioral Health, United States, 2012 -- the latest in a series of publications (formerly known as Mental Health, United States) issued biennially by SAMHSA since 1980. This report features mental health and substance abuse statistics at the national and state levels from 40 different data sources.

Smoking linked to $278 billion in losses for U.S. employers: Workers who smoke cost the U.S. economy an estimated $278 billion annually in lost productivity due to absenteeism and extra healthcare costs. http://www.gallup.com/poll/164651/smoking-linked-278-billion-losses-employers.aspx?utm_source=alert&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=syndication&utm_content=morelink&utm_term=Wellbeing

Interesting journal articles

Attention to eyes is present but in decline in 2-6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism [published online ahead of print November 6, 2013]. Jones W, Klin A. Nature. doi: 10.1038/nature12715. 
Deficits in eye contact have been a hallmark of autism since the condition's initial description. They are cited widely as a diagnostic feature and figure prominently in clinical instruments; however, the early onset of these deficits has not been known. Here we show in a prospective longitudinal study that infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) exhibit mean decline in eye fixation from 2 to 6 months of age, a pattern not observed in infants who do not develop ASD. These observations mark the earliest known indicators of social disability in infancy, but also falsify a prior hypothesis: in the first months of life, this basic mechanism of social adaptive action-eye looking-is not immediately diminished in infants later diagnosed with ASD; instead, eye looking appears to begin at normative levels prior to decline. The timing of decline highlights a narrow developmental window and reveals the early derailment of processes that would otherwise have a key role in canalizing typical social development. Finally, the observation of this decline in eye fixation-rather than outright absence-offers a promising opportunity for early intervention that could build on the apparent preservation of mechanisms subserving reflexive initial orientation towards the eyes.

Fine tuning of craniofacial morphology by distant-acting enhancers [published online ahead of print October 25, 2013]. Attanasio C, Nord AS, Zhu Y, et al. Science. doi: 10.1126/science.1241006.
The shape of the human face and skull is largely genetically determined. However, the genomic basis of craniofacial morphology is incompletely understood and hypothesized to involve protein-coding genes, as well as gene regulatory sequences. We used a combination of epigenomic profiling, in vivo characterization of candidate enhancer sequences in transgenic mice, and targeted deletion experiments to examine the role of distant-acting enhancers in craniofacial development. We identified complex regulatory landscapes consisting of enhancers that drive spatially complex developmental expression patterns. Analysis of mouse lines in which individual craniofacial enhancers had been deleted revealed significant alterations of craniofacial shape, demonstrating the functional importance of enhancers in defining face and skull morphology. These results demonstrate that enhancers are involved in craniofacial development and suggest that enhancer sequence variation contributes to the diversity of human facial morphology.

Long-term mortality after screening for colorectal cancer. Shaukat A, Mongin SJ, Geisser MS, et al. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(12):1106-14.
BACKGROUND: In randomized trials, fecal occult-blood testing reduces mortality from colorectal cancer. However, the duration of the benefit is unknown, as are the effects specific to age and sex. METHODS: In the Minnesota Colon Cancer Control Study, 46,551 participants, 50 to 80 years of age, were randomly assigned to usual care (control) or to annual or biennial screening with fecal occult-blood testing. Screening was performed from 1976 through 1982 and from 1986 through 1992. We used the National Death Index to obtain updated information on the vital status of participants and to determine causes of death through 2008. RESULTS: Through 30 years of follow-up, 33,020 participants (70.9%) died. A total of 732 deaths were attributed to colorectal cancer: 200 of the 11,072 deaths (1.8%) in the annual-screening group, 237 of the 11,004 deaths (2.2%) in the biennial-screening group, and 295 of the 10,944 deaths (2.7%) in the control group. Screening reduced colorectal-cancer mortality (relative risk with annual screening, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.82; relative risk with biennial screening, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.93) through 30 years of follow-up. No reduction was observed in all-cause mortality (relative risk with annual screening, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.01; relative risk with biennial screening, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.01). The reduction in colorectal-cancer mortality was larger for men than for women in the biennial-screening group (P=0.04 for interaction). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of screening with fecal occult-blood testing on colorectal-cancer mortality persists after 30 years but does not influence all-cause mortality. The sustained reduction in colorectal-cancer mortality supports the effect of polypectomy.

Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir fixed-dose combination with and without ribavirin in treatment-naive and previously treated patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection (LONESTAR): an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial [published online ahead of print November 1, 2013]. Lawitz E, Poordad FF, Pang PS, et al. Lancet. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62121-2.
BACKGROUND: Interferon-based treatment is not suitable for many patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection because of contraindications such as psychiatric illness, and a high burden of adverse events. We assessed the efficacy and safety of an interferon-free regimen-a fixed-dose combination of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir (400 mg) and the HCV NS5A inhibitor ledipasvir (90 mg), with and without ribavirin-in patients with genotype-1 hepatitis C infection who were treatment-naive or previously treated with a protease-inhibitor regimen. METHODS: For this open-label study, we enrolled 100 adult patients (>18 years) with HCV infection at a centre in the USA between Nov 2, 2012, and Dec 21, 2012. In cohort A, we used a computer-generated sequence to randomly assign (1:1:1; stratified by HCV genotype [1a vs 1b]) 60 non-cirrhotic, treatment-naive patients to receive sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir for 8 weeks (group 1), sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir and ribavirin for 8 weeks (group 2), or sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir for 12 weeks (group 3). In cohort B, we randomly allocated (1:1; stratified by genotype and presence or absence of cirrhosis) 40 patients who previously had virological failure after receiving a protease inhibitor regimen to receive sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir for 12 weeks (group 4) or sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir and ribavirin for 12 weeks (group 5). 22 (55%) of 40 patients in cohort B had compensated cirrhosis. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12), analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01329978. RESULTS: In cohort A, SVR12 was achieved by 19 (95%) of 20 patients (95% CI 75-100) in group 1, by 21 (100%) of 21 patients (84-100) in group 2, and by 18 (95%) of 19 patients (74-100) in group 3. In cohort B, SVR12 was achieved by 18 (95%) of 19 patients (74-100) in group 4 and by all 21 (100%) of 21 patients (84-100) in group 5. Two patients had viral relapse; one patient was lost to follow-up after achieving sustained virological response 8 weeks after treatment. The most common adverse events were nausea, anaemia, upper respiratory tract infection, and headache. One patient in group five had a serious adverse event of anaemia, thought to be related to ribavirin treatment. INTERPRETATION: These findings suggest that the fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir-ledipasvir alone or with ribavirin has the potential to cure most patients with genotype-1 HCV, irrespective of treatment history or the presence of compensated cirrhosis. Further clinical trials are needed to establish the best treatment duration and to further assess the contribution of ribavirin.

Weight change and health outcomes at 3 years after bariatric surgery among individuals with severe obesity [published online ahead of print November 4, 2013]. Courcoulas AP, Christian NJ, Belle SH, et al. JAMA. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.280928.
IMPORTANCE Severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥35) is associated with a broad range of health risks. Bariatric surgery induces weight loss and short-term health improvements, but little is known about long-term outcomes of these operations. OBJECTIVE To report 3-year change in weight and select health parameters after common bariatric surgical procedures. DESIGN AND SETTING The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) Consortium is a multicenter observational cohort study at 10 US hospitals in 6 geographically diverse clinical centers. PARTICIPANTS AND EXPOSURE Adults undergoing first-time bariatric surgical procedures as part of routine clinical care by participating surgeons were recruited between 2006 and 2009 and followed up until September 2012. Participants completed research assessments prior to surgery and 6 months, 12 months, and then annually after surgery. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Three years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), we assessed percent weight change from baseline and the percentage of participants with diabetes achieving hemoglobin A1c levels less than 6.5% or fasting plasma glucose values less than 126 mg/dL without pharmacologic therapy. Dyslipidemia and hypertension resolution at 3 years was also assessed. RESULTS At baseline, participants (N = 2458) were 18 to 78 years old, 79% were women, median BMI was 45.9 (IQR, 41.7-51.5), and median weight was 129 kg (IQR, 115-147). For their first bariatric surgical procedure, 1738 participants underwent RYGB, 610 LAGB, and 110 other procedures. At baseline, 774 (33%) had diabetes, 1252 (63%) dyslipidemia, and 1601 (68%) hypertension. Three years after surgery, median actual weight loss for RYGB participants was 41 kg (IQR, 31-52), corresponding to a percentage of baseline weight lost of 31.5% (IQR, 24.6%-38.4%). For LAGB participants, actual weight loss was 20 kg (IQR, 10-29), corresponding to 15.9% (IQR, 7.9%-23.0%). The majority of weight loss was evident 1 year after surgery for both procedures. Five distinct weight change trajectory groups were identified for each procedure. Among participants who had diabetes at baseline, 216 RYGB participants (67.5%) and 28 LAGB participants (28.6%) experienced partial remission at 3 years. The incidence of diabetes was 0.9% after RYGB and 3.2% after LAGB. Dyslipidemia resolved in 237 RYGB participants (61.9%) and 39 LAGB participants (27.1%); remission of hypertension occurred in 269 RYGB participants (38.2%) and 43 LAGB participants (17.4%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among participants with severe obesity, there was substantial weight loss 3 years after bariatric surgery, with the majority experiencing maximum weight change during the first year. However, there was variability in the amount and trajectories of weight loss and in diabetes, blood pressure, and lipid outcomes.

New Books

Accessibility handbook: making 508 websites for everyone. Cunningham, K. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, Inc.; 2012.

Adobe Acrobat XI : the official training workbook from Adobe Systems. San Jose, CA: Adobe; 2013.

Adobe InDesign CS6: classroom in a book: the official training workbook from Adobe Systems. Cruise, J. San Jose, CA: Adobe Systems Incorporated; 2012.

Categorical data analysis using SAS. 3rd ed. Cary, NC: SAS Institute; 2012.

Chronic medical disease and cognitive aging: toward a healthy body and brain. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.

Data matching: concepts and techniques for record linkage, entity resolution, and duplicate detection. Christen, P. New York: Springer; 2012.

The data warehouse toolkit: the definitive guide to dimensional modeling. Kimball, R. 3rd ed. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.

Discovering statistics using R. Field, AP. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2012.

E-learning by design. Horton, WK. 2nd ed. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer; 2012.

Endocrinology: adult and pediatric: diabetes mellitus and obesity. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2010.

Epidemiology for public health practice. Friis, RH. 5th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014.

Epidemiology of chronic disease: global perspectives. Harris, RE. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2013.

Essentials of online course design: a standards-based guide. Vai, M. New York: Routledge; 2011.

Health program planning and evaluation: a practical, systematic approach for community health. Issel, ML. 3rd ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014.

How to use SPSS statistics: a step-by-step guide to analysis and interpretation. Cronk, BC. 7th ed. Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing; 2012.

Infectious disease epidemiology: theory and practice. 3rd ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014.

Information security risk assessment toolkit: practical assessments through data collection and data analysis. Talabis, M. Boston: Elsevier; 2013.

Introduction to public health. Schneider, MJ. 4th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014.

IT governance: an international guide to data security and ISO27001/ISO27002. Calder, A. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Kogan Page; 2012.

Learning Java. Niemeyer, P. 4th ed. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly; 2013.

Learning Web design: a beginner's guide to HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and web graphics. Robbins, JN. 4th ed. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, Inc.; 2012.

The little SAS book: a primer. Delwiche, LD. 5th ed. Cary, NC: SAS Institute; 2012.

Measuring the user experience: collecting, analyzing, and presenting usability metrics. Tullis, T. 2nd ed. Boston: Elsevier, Inc.; 2013.

Microsoft Office Project 2007 for dummies. Muir, N. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2007.

Microsoft SharePoint 2010 plain & simple: learn the simplest ways to get things done with Microsoft SharePoint 2010. Lightfoot, J. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly Media, Inc.; 2010.

Modern nutrition in health and disease. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.

Nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. 3rd ed. Boston: Elsevier; 2013.

One nation under stress: the trouble with stress as an idea. Becker, D. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.

PMP: Project Management Professional exam study guide. Heldman, K. 7th ed. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.

PMP exam prep: accelerated learning to pass PMI's PMP exam. Mulcahy, R. 8th ed. Minnetonka, MN: RMC Publications, Inc.; 2013.

Pro ASP.NET MVC 4. Freeman, A. 4th ed. New York: Apress; 2012.

Professional javascript for web developers. Zakas, NC. 3rd ed. Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.

Project management : a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. Kerzner, HR. 11th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.

Pursuing the good life: 100 reflections on positive psychology. Peterson, C. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.

The R book. Crawley, MJ. 2nd ed. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.

Scenario-based e-learning: evidence-based guidelines for online workforce learning. Clark, RC. San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer; 2013.

Social neuroscience and public health: foundations for the science of chronic disease prevention. New York: Springer; 2013.

Tarascon adult emergency pocketbook. 4th ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2008.

Team of rivals: the political genius of Abraham Lincoln. Goodwin, DK. New York: Simon & Schuster; 2005.

Windows 7 & Office 2010 for dummies. Rathbone, A. Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Publishing, Inc.; 2011.

Windows 7 inside out: deluxe edition. Bott, Ed. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press; 2011.

Free E-Books

Educating the student body: taking physical activity and physical education to school (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18314&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+11.05.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Educating the Student Body makes recommendations about approaches for strengthening and improving programs and policies for physical activity and physical education in the school environment. This report lays out a set of guiding principles to guide its work on these tasks. These included: recognizing the benefits of instilling life-long physical activity habits in children; the value of using systems thinking in improving physical activity and physical education in the school environment; the recognition of current disparities in opportunities and the need to achieve equity in physical activity and physical education; the importance of considering all types of school environments; the need to take into consideration the diversity of students as recommendations are developed.

Elder abuse and its prevention: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18518&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies% 20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.23.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term= 20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.23.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Using an ecological framework, this workshop explored the burden of elder abuse around the world, focusing on its impacts on individuals, families, communities, and societies. Additionally, the workshop addressed occurrences and co-occurrences of different types of abuse, including physical, sexual, emotional, and financial, as well as neglect. The ultimate objective was to illuminate promising global and multisectoral evidence-based approaches to the prevention of elder maltreatment. While the workshop covered scope and prevalence and unique characteristics of abuse, the intention was to move beyond what is known about elder abuse to foster discussions about how to improve prevention, intervention, and mitigation of the victims' needs, particularly through collaborative efforts. The workshop discussions included innovative intervention models and opportunities for prevention across sectors and settings.

Establishing transdisciplinary professionalism for improving health outcomes: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18398&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.15.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Summary of a workshop convened by the Institute of Medicine Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education to explore the possibility of whether different professions can come together and whether a dialogue with society on professionalism is possible. Most of the 59 members making up the Global Forum were present at the workshop and engaged with outside participants in active dialogue around issues related to professionalism and how the different professions might work effectively together and with society in creating a social contract. The structure of the workshop involved large plenary discussions, facilitated table conversations, and small-group breakout sessions. In this way, the members - representing multiple sectors, countries, health professions, and educational associations - had numerous opportunities to share their own perspectives on transdisciplinary professionalism as well as hear the opinions of subject matter experts and the general public.

Financing long-term services and supports for individuals with disabilities and older adults: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18538&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.29.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
The financing of long-term services and supports has become a major issue in the United States. These are the services and supports that individuals with disabilities, chronic conditions, and functional impairments need in order to live independently, such as assistance with eating, bathing, and dressing. Long-term services and supports do not include the medical or nursing services required to manage health conditions that may be responsible for a disabling condition. At least 11 million adults ages 18 and over receive long-term services and supports. Only a little more than half of them - 57 percent - are ages 65 or older. One study found that about 6 percent of people turning 65 in 2005 could expect to have expenses of more than $100,000 for long-term services and supports. Financing Long-Term Services and Supports for Individuals with Disabilities and Older Adults discusses the scope and trends of current sources of financing for long-term services and supports for working-age individuals with disabilities and older adults aging into disability, including income supports and personal savings. This report considers the role of families, business, and government in financing long-term services and supports and discusses implications of and opportunities for current and innovative approaches.

Organizational change to improve health literacy: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18378&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.23.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
As a follow up to the 2012 discussion paper Ten Attributes of a Health Literate Health Care Organization, participants met to examine what is known about implementation of the attributes of a health literate health care organization and to create a network of health literacy implementers who can share information about health literacy innovations and problem solving. This report discusses implementation approaches and shares tools that could be used in implementing specific literacy strategies.

Population health implications of the affordable care act: workshop summary (2013): http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=18546&utm_medium=etmail&utm_source=The%20National%20Academies%20Press&utm_campaign=NAP+mail+new+10.15.13&utm_content=Downloader&utm_term=
Population Health Implications of the Affordable Care Act looks beyond narrow interpretations of population as the group of patients covered by a health plan to consider a more expansive understanding of population, one focused on the distribution of health outcomes across all individuals living within a certain set of geopolitical boundaries. In establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council, creating a fund for prevention and public health, and requiring nonprofit hospitals to transform their concept of community benefit, the ACA has expanded the arena for interventions to improve health beyond the "doctor's" office. Improving the health of the population - whether in a community or in the nation as a whole - requires acting to transform the places where people live, work, study, and play. This report examines the population health-oriented efforts of and interactions among public health agencies (state and local), communities, and health care delivery organizations that are beginning to facilitate such action.

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Last updated October 30, 2014