Silicosis is a respiratory disease caused by inhalation of silica dust that leads to inflammation and then scarring of the lung tissue.
1) Simple chronic silicosis
There are three types of silicosis:
Results from long-term exposure (> 20 years) to small amounts of silica dust, which results in the formation of nodules of chronic inflammation and scarring in the lungs and chest lymph nodes. This disease may resemble chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).
2) Accelerated silicosis
Exposure to large amounts of silica over a short period of time (5-15 years) resulting in inflammation, scarring, and symptoms that progress faster than in simple silicosis.
3) Acute silicosis
Short-term exposure to very large amounts of silica that inflame the lungs causing them to fill with fluid; results in severe shortness of breath and low blood oxygen levels.
Through passive surveillance the Silicosis Surveillance Program maintains a database of information on cases of silicosis in the state of Texas. The cases are obtained from reporting by physicians, laboratories and other health care providers. Also, reviewing medical records at physician offices and hospitals may be performed. Texas law requires that designated professionals, primarily physicians and laboratorians, report cases of silicosis to the department of state health services. The reports are received by the Environmental & Injury Epidemiology and Toxicology Unit (EIET), which acts on the information received, based on a standard protocol. Since passive surveillance, does not actively seek out cases, since 1986 the EOEP has augmented the passive reporting of silicosis required by law by conducting quarterly reviews of death certificates to identify certificates with silicosis listed as a cause of death. In addition, the EOEP also visits doctors' offices and abstracts information from records of reported silicosis cases.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the clinical symptoms of silicosis?
- Shortness of breath
- Severe cough
- Chest pains
- Reduced lung capacity
- Difficult breathing
- Bluish or grayish skin color
As disease advances:
- Shortness of breath becomes worse
- Cough becomes worse
- Lung x-rays show scar tissue
- Increases tiredness
- Loss of appetite
- Because the body's ability to fight infections may be weakened by silica in the lungs, other illnesses (such as tuberculosis) may result and can cause fever, wight loss, night sweats, chest pains and/or respiratory failure.
What occupations are at a higher risk for silicosis?
- Mining Industries
- Sandblasting or Abrasive Blasting
- Granite and Stone Cutting
- Construction (especially bridge, highway and tunnels)
- Masonry Work
- Concrete Finishing
- Drywall Finishing
- Shipyards or railroad workers
- Sand and Gravel Screening
- Rock Crushing (for road base)
What can a worker do to help prevent silicosis?
- Avoid working in dust whenever possible.
- Check that all ventilation systems and protective equipment are in good repair and working correctly.
- Use the equipment and use it properly.
- Don't smoke. Smoking breaks down the body's defenses, and makes it hard for your lungs to remove dust.
- Shower and change clothes after working in contaminated areas BEFORE getting in your car and going home.
- Get a regular medical checkup, with pulmonary function tests and x-rays.
Who is responsible for reporting occupational conditions including silicosis?
- Health Professionals
- Any persons in charge of a clinical or hospital laboratory, blood bank, mobile unit or other facility in which a laboratory examination reveals evidence of the reportable disease.
How do you obtain forms to report occupational conditions?
- Call our toll-free number 1 (800) 588-1248 to request reporting forms.
- Or link to DSHS Form #F09-11626 to complete information for silicosis cases (PDF file: 100.1KB, 2005 revision)
Files above must be viewed/printed with Adobe® Acrobat® Reader, visit our file viewing information page for download information.
How do you report occupational conditions?
- Cases can be reported directly to the Environmental & Injury Epidemiology and Toxicology Unit, DSHS, by calling our toll-free number 1 (800) 588-1248.
- Case reports should contain the following information at a minimum: Name, Date of Birth, Social Security Number, Gender, Race, Ethnicity, Smoking History, Occupational History (employer, dates of employment, occupation/job activities), Diagnosing Physician Name, Physician Address or Facility Name, and Physician City.
- Case reports can be faxed to (512) 776-7776.
- Case reports can be mailed to the Environmental Injury & Epidemiology and Toxicology Unit
- Case reports can also be made to the local or regional staff of the health department who will transmit the information directly to the DSHS central office.
What Healthcare Providers Need to Know about Reporting Silicosis
Información sobre la exposición a la sílice en el lugar de trabajo
Facts about Silica Exposure in the Workplace
- Target: workers
- Purpose: to promote the awareness of asbestos exposure
Silicosis Incidence Graphs:
Silicosis Occupational Incidence 2004 - 2010