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    Infectious Disease Control Unit
    Mail Code: 1960
    PO BOX 149347 - Austin, TX 78714-9347
    1100 West 49th Street, Suite T801
    Austin, TX 78714

    Phone: 512 776 7676
    Fax: (512) 776-7616


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week 06

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Surveillance

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Influenza Influenza
(Flu)
ICD-9 487; ICD-10 J10,11
Related Topics: Protecting Yourself During the Cold and Flu Season, Avian Flu, Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Asthma and SARS

2007 - 2008 Texas Influenza Surveillance Information

Influenza Surveillance Report for MMWR Week 6

The influenza (flu) activity level for Texas for the week ending February 9, 2008 is “widespread.” Widespread activity indicates that at least half of the regions in the state are experiencing an increase in influenza–like illness (ILI) and have recent culture–confirmed influenza.

 

Reports from Health Service Regions

Reports were received from all 11 Health Service Regions (HSRs) for week 6. HSRs 1, 2/3, 8, and 9/10 reported an increase in flu activity from the previous week. HSR 7 reported a decrease in flu activity compared to the previous week. For a map of Health Service Regions, please visit the following website:

 

http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/regions/state.shtm

 

Laboratory Results

During week 6, eight hospital laboratories and public health agencies across Texas reported conducting a total of 2,421 influenza tests (antigen, culture, and PCR) to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSSnew window) sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Of the 2,142 antigen detection tests performed, 591 were positive for influenza A/not subtyped and 121 were positive for influenza B. These results were reported from Bell, Bexar, Harris, Lubbock, Tarrant, and Webb counties. Of the 53 PCR tests performed, 3 were positive for influenza A/H3, 9 were positive influenza A/not subtyped, and 11 were positive for influenza B. These were reported from patients residing in Bell, Coryell, McLennan, Tarrant, Travis, and Williamson counties. Additional PCR tests positive for influenza A/not subtyped and influenza B were reported from Tarrant County. A total of 306 reports of culture–confirmed influenza were received from NREVSS, the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) Laboratory, Scott and White Hospital Laboratory, Texas Children‘s Hospital Laboratory, University Hospital, and other sources for the following counties:

 

 

Influenza A/H1 Influenza A/H3 Influenza A/not subtyped Influenza B
Dallas County (5) Angelina County (2) Bell County (47) Angelina County
Starr County Bandera County Bexar County (44) Bell County (19)
  Dallas County (7) Brazos County (28) Bexar County (20)
  Harris County (2) Burleson County Brazos County
  Jim Wells County (4) Coryell County Dallas County (2)
  San Patricio County Dallas County (8) El Paso County (2)
  Starr County (2) Falls County (3) Galveston County
  Travis County (4) Grimes County (2) Harris County (12)
    Harris County (13) McLennan County (6)
    Leon County Milam County
    Llano County San Patricio County
    McLennan County (30) Travis County
    Milam County (2) Washington County
    Montgomery County Wichita County (4)
    Navarro County Williamson County
    Washington County  
    Wichita County (20)  

Additional positive results from point-of-care rapid flu tests were reported by providers throughout the state (see Texas map below).

 

Antigenic Characterization

CDC has reported antigenic characterization results from 34 influenza isolates [7 influenza A/H1, 24 influenza A/H3, and 3 influenza B viruses] received from the DSHS Laboratory since the beginning of the 2007–08 flu season.

 

Influenza A/H1 [7]

  • Seven (100%) of the seven viruses were characterized as A/Solomon Islands/3/2006, the influenza A/H1 component of the 2007–08 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.
Influenza A/H3 [24]
  • Two (8%) of the 24 viruses were characterized as A/Wisconsin/67/2005–like, the influenza A/H3 component of the 2007–08 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Twenty–one (88%) of the 24 viruses were characterized as A/Brisbane/10/2007–like. A/Brisbane/10/2007 is a recent antigenic variant which evolved from A/Wisconsin/67/2005–like.
  • One (4%) of the 24 viruses showed somewhat reduced titers with antisera produced against A/Wisconsin/67/2005 and A/Brisbane/10/2007.
Influenza B (B/Victoria/02/87 and B/Yamagata/16/88 lineages) [3]
    Victoria lineage [0]
  • The influenza B component for the 2007–08 influenza vaccine is a B/Malaysia/2506/2004–like virus, belonging to the B/Victoria lineage.
    Yamagata lineage [3]
  • Three (100%) of the three viruses were identified as belonging to the B/Yamagata lineage of viruses.

 

These results are very similar to national antigenic characterization results. The national results may be found in the CDC weekly flu report at http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/. It is too early in the season to tell how well circulating strains will match the vaccine strains, or which influenza viruses will predominate this season. The DSHS Laboratory sends a representative sample of influenza viruses to the CDC throughout the flu season.

 

Influenza–Associated Pediatric Mortality

One influenza–associated pediatric fatality occurred during MMWR week 6. The death occurred in a 14–year–old resident of Ellis County. The child had no significant underlying medical conditions prior to illness onset; however, a sputum specimen obtained during the illness was positive for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The child was not vaccinated for influenza for the current season. A direct fluorescent antibody test was positive for influenza A/not subtyped. As of week 6, Texas has reported five influenza–associated pediatric deaths in the 2007–08 influenza season.

 

 

School Closures and Institutional Outbreaks

School closures due to increased influenza–like illness were reported in Comanche (four schools), Hale (one school), and Wood (one school) counties in week 6. Institutional outbreaks due to influenza–like illness were reported in two Collin County schools (the schools remained open).

 

 

Sentinel Provider Surveillance Network

Seventy–five sentinel providers reported data to the U.S. Influenza Sentinel Provider Surveillance System (SPSN) on patients with influenza–like illness (ILI) and total patients seen for any reason during week 6; of those, 70 (93%) providers reported seeing at least one patient with ILI. Of all patient visits during this week, 9.74% were due to ILI. The ILI baseline for the West South Central Region (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas) of the United States is 4.3% for the 2007–2008 season. The baseline is the mean percentage of patient visits for ILI during non-influenza weeks for the previous three seasons plus two standard deviations.

 


Percentage of Influenza–Like Illness (ILI) Reported by Sentinel Providers in Texas as of (2/11/2008 11:37:28 AM)
Week # Reporting Age 0-4 Age 5-24 Age 25-64 Age over 64 Total ILI Total Patients % ILI
2007-40 84 256 163 151 49 619 21410 2.89
2007-41 88 264 255 207 58 784 25255 3.10
2007-42 86 274 270 261 50 855 25776 3.32
2007-43 85 368 290 208 47 913 26428 3.45
2007-44 95 391 276 206 55 928 28213 3.29
2007-45 87 411 314 243 39 1007 25665 3.92
2007-46 79 442 306 215 65 1028 24713 4.16
2007-47 91 478 317 272 73 1140 22748 5.01
2007-48 84 506 298 299 74 1177 26193 4.49
2007-49 84 233 290 162 16 700 20713 3.38
2007-50 80 256 265 128 16 665 18711 3.55
2007-51 68 169 197 186 26 578 15597 3.71
2007-52 77 176 201 191 22 590 12436 4.74
2008-01 90 217 302 332 29 880 16520 5.33
2008-02 97 366 495 630 117 1608 25763 6.24
2008-03 81 283 514 370 36 1203 21832 5.51
2008-04 85 330 859 650 54 1893 22850 8.28
2008-05 91 585 1166 922 154 2827 28272 10.00
2008-06 75 493 1046 873 107 2519 25865 9.74


The map showing influenza activity in the United States for MMWR week 6 is displayed below. The current U.S. flu weekly report may be found here.

 

 

Influenza in USA Map

 

For more information on flu surveillance activities in the State of Texas, please visit our main surveillance page.




Last Updated: Tuesday, February 19, 2008

Texas Department of State Health Services - Infectious Disease Control Unit
1100 West 49th Street, Suite T801, Mail Code: 1960 PO BOX 149347 - Austin, TX 78714-9347
(512) 458-7676 - Fax: (512) 458-7616 - E-Mail

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Last updated May 19, 2010