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2013 - 2014 Texas Influenza Surveillance Information

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Current Flu Activity Report (Week 28) pdf

 

 

 

 

                        

 

 


Texas Influenza Surveillance Report

2013–2014 Season/2014 MMWR Week 28

(July 6, 2014 – July 12, 2014)

Report produced on 7/18/2014

Please note: The 2013-2014 influenza season began on September 29, 2013. For reports from the 2012-2013 season, please see http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/idcu/disease/influenza/surveillance/2013/.


During week 28 in Texas

Summary
According to Texas influenza laboratory data and influenza-like illness (ILI) indicators there is low influenza activity occurring around the state. In addition, ILI activity slightly increased compared to last week, but remains below the 2013-2014 state ILINet baseline of 4.35%.

Texas Surveillance Component

Change from Previous Week

Current Week

Previous Week

Page of Report

Table 1: Summary of Texas Influenza (Flu) and Influenza-like Illness (ILI) Activity for the Current Week

Statewide influenza activity level reported to CDC (geographic spread of influenza)

No Change

Sporadic

Sporadic

--

Statewide ILINet Activity Indicator assigned by CDC (intensity of influenza-like illness)

N/A

Not Reported

Not Reported

--

Percentage of specimens positive for influenza

0.79%

0.79%

0.00%

1

Percentage of visits due to ILI (ILINet)

 0.21%

3.83%

3.62%

3

Number of regions reporting increased flu/ILI activity

1

0

1

5

Number of regions reporting decreased flu/ILI activity

No Change

1

1

5

Number of variant/novel influenza infections

No Change

0

0

6

Number of ILI/influenza outbreaks

Increased

1

0

6

Number of pediatric influenza deaths

 New Case Reported

1

0

6

Data displayed have been updated since last week’s flu report with any new reports received.

Laboratory Results
Influenza
Hospital laboratories across Texas voluntarily report influenza tests (antigen, culture, and PCR) to the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS). Providers throughout Texas also submit specimens for influenza testing (PCR) to Texas public health laboratories, including the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) state laboratory in Austin and the nine additional Texas Laboratory Response Network (LRN) laboratories. The results reported by Texas NREVSS participants and public health laboratories for the current week are summarized in the table below. Additional influenza test results (rapid tests, culture, PCR) and ILI activity were reported from providers and public health departments throughout the state (see county map at the end of this report).

 

Week 28

Table 2: Influenza Testing Performed by Texas Laboratories for the Current Week

Number of labs reporting flu tests

9

Number of specimens tested

381

Number of positive specimens (%)

3 (0.79%)

Percentage of total tests that were antigen detection tests

21.26%

Positive specimens by type/subtype [n (%)]

Influenza A

0 (0.00%)

      Subtyping performed

0 (0.0%)

              A (H1N1)

0 (0.0%)

              A (H3N2)

0 (0.0%)

      Subtyping not performed

0 (0.0%)

Influenza B

3 (100.00%)

†Laboratory data in 2013-2014 season reports may not be comparable to reports from previous seasons because of the inclusion of DSHS and LRN laboratory data for the current season.

Figure 1: Number and Percentage of Tests (Antigen, Culture, PCR) Positive for Influenza by Type and Subtype Reported by Texas Laboratories, 2013-2014 Season

Flu Percentage Subtype

Other Respiratory Viruses
The NREVSS system collects information on a variety of respiratory viruses in addition to influenza including parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and respiratory adenovirus. The results for the current week are summarized below.

Virus

Number of Laboratories Testing

Tests Performed

Positive Tests

Percentage of Tests Positive

Table 3: Non-Influenza Respiratory Virus Testing
Performed by Texas NREVSS Laboratories for the Current Week

Adenovirus (respiratory)

4

349

11

3.15%

HMPV

4

282

1

0.35%

Parainfluenza virus

4

337

6

1.78%

Rhinovirus

3

246

51

20.73%

RSV

7

333

11

3.30%

Some non-NREVSS reporters also contribute to the RSV data.


Antigenic Characterization
Since September 29, 2013, CDC has reported antigenic characterization results from 85 influenza A (H1N1) viruses, 25 influenza A (H3N2) viruses, and 48 influenza B viruses received from the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) Laboratory. The DSHS Laboratory sends a representative sample of influenza viruses to the CDC throughout the flu season.

  • Influenza A (H1N1) [85]
    Eighty-five (100%) viruses were related to A/California/07/2009. This virus strain was included in the 2013-2014 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere
  • Influenza A (H3N2) [25]
    Twenty-five (100%) viruses were related to A/Texas/50/2012, an A (H3N2) virus antigenically like the cell-propagated prototype virus A/Victoria/361/2011. This virus strain was included in the 2013-2014 influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere.
  • Influenza B [48]
    • Yamagata lineage [16]: sixteen (33%) influenza B/Yamagata-lineage viruses have been characterized from Texas. B/ Massachusetts/2/2012-like is included as an influenza B component of the 2013-2014 Northern Hemisphere trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccines.
    • Victoria lineage [32]: Thirty-two (67%) influenza B/Victoria-lineage viruses have been characterized from Texas  B/Brisbane/60/2008-like, which is included as an influenza B component of the 2013-2014 Northern Hemisphere quadrivalent influenza vaccine.

Antiviral Resistance
Table 4 displays the number of influenza viruses from Texas that have been tested for antiviral resistance since October 1, 2013. Three 2009 influenza A (H1N1) viruses have tested positive for the mutation that confers resistance to oseltamivir.

Oseltamivir

Zanamivir

Table 4: Cumulative Antiviral Resistance Results from Texas Influenza Viruses, 2013-2014 Season†

Virus samples tested (n)

Resistant viruses, number (%)

Virus samples tested (n)

Resistant viruses, number (%)

Influenza A (H1N1)

354

3 (0.85%)

75

0 (0%)

Influenza A (H3N2)

15

0 (0%)

15

0 (0%)

Influenza B

5

0 (0%)

5

0 (0%)

This table includes specimens submitted as part of routine surveillance and not for diagnostic purposes.

U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet)

 

Week 28

Table 5: Texas ILINet Reporting and Patient Visit Summary for the Current Week

Number of providers reporting

86

Number of providers reporting patient visits

86

Number (%) of providers with at least one ILI case

64 (74.42%)

Percentage of all visits due to ILI

3.83%

Texas ILINet baseline, 2013–2014

4.35%

Reporting providers include both ILINet and Enhanced ILINet/IISP providers.
The baseline is the mean percentage of patient visits for ILI during non-influenza weeks for the previous three seasons plus two standard deviations. A “non-influenza week” is defined as a week that accounted for less than 2% of the season’s total number of specimens that tested positive for influenza.

  Providers  Number of ILI Cases by Age Group (Years)  Total ILI    

 Week

Reporting 

0-4

5-24

25-49

50-64

65+

(all ages)  

Total Patients  

% ILI  

Table 6: Percentage of Visits for Influenza-like Illness Reported by Texas ILINet Participants (as of 7/17/2014 9:00 AM)
201340 124 244 424 279 129 129 1205 32650 3.69%
201341 129 308 452 295 127 116 1298 34475 3.77%
201342 126 306 434 321 137 100 1298 30976 4.19%
201343 127 305 481 325 110 111 1332 34658 3.84%
201344 127 338 426 285 149 136 1334 33751 3.95%
201345 128 323 516 316 147 104 1406 30801 4.56%
201346 128 352 642 491 174 141 1800 34893 5.16%
201347 124 405 761 558 197 114 2035 34921 5.83%
201348 125 328 465 535 162 95 1585 22865 6.93%
201349 121 372 790 798 198 57 2215 30736 7.21%
201350 120 383 983 812 216 67 2461 29791 8.26%
201351 117 627 1536 1491 401 92 4147 32803 12.64%
201352 123 547 1016 1288 474 200 3525 25638 13.75%
201401 127 532 838 1366 505 281 3522 29284 12.03%
201402 126 519 922 1142 442 299 3324 33811 9.83%
201403 124 409 906 854 274 173 2616 34497 7.58%
201404 121 358 736 694 262 195 2245 30646 7.33%
201405 124 352 724 626 215 160 2077 31077 6.68%
201406 123 341 654 596 206 157 1954 30982 6.31%
201407 122 294 762 550 217 152 1975 32988 5.99%
201408 123 323 736 579 214 148 2000 32651 6.13%
201409 112 316 624 473 122 63 1598 29269 5.46%
201410 118 291 621 544 201 148 1805 30334 5.95%
201411 116 251 424 503 206 140 1524 26097 5.84%
201412 116 257 516 486 203 127 1589 29870 5.32%
201413 115 243 529 475 181 130 1558 29354 5.31%
201414 112 245 521 437 192 125 1520 28744 5.29%
201415 105 228 602 359 85 43 1317 27112 4.86%
201416 111 210 536 405 154 137 1442 27646 5.22%
201417 109 188 201 421 158 131 1399 28859 4.85%
201418 107 228 434 305 116 134 1217 28864 4.22%
201419 106 182 411 360 155 128 1236 27882 4.43%
201420 107 160 435 350 132 114 1191 26670 4.47%
201421 103 216 476 336 136 105 1269 26062 4.87%
201422 103 170 378 299 122 90 1059 23420 4.52%
201423 93 155 372 260 66 12 865 21739 3.98%
201424   97   173 308 280 105 99 965 24324 3.97%
201425 94 132 247 269 107 99 854 22575 3.78%
201426 91 112 269 219 96 86 782 21366 3.66%
201427 89 92 186 209 96 93 676 18697 3.62%
201428 86 98 223 233 90 109 753 19659 3.83%


Figure 2: Percentage of Visits Due to Influenza-like Illness Reported by Texas ILINet Participants, 2013–2014 Season
ILI Data Chart


Figure 3: Percentage of Visits Due to Influenza-like Illness Reported by Texas ILINet Participants, 2010–2014 Seasons

ILI Percentage Graph

Reports from Health Service Regions

Reports were received from all Health Service Regions (HSRs) during week 28. HSR 1 reported a decreased level of flu activity compared to week 27. All other HSRs reported the same level of flu activity compared to week 27.

Variant Influenza Viruses
No variant or novel influenza viruses have been detected in Texas in 2013 or 2014.

Institutional Outbreaks and School Closures
During week 28, HSR 2/3 reported an influenza outbreak associated with a beauty pageant.  Patients were positive for influenza A via rapid influenza tests.

No school closures were reported during week 28.

Influenza-Associated Pediatric Mortality  

An influenza-associated pediatric death occurred during week 23 of 2014 (week ending June 7, 2014).  The child was an 8 year old resident of HSR 7 with no underlying health conditions. The child’s influenza vaccination status is unknown at this time.  Specimens collected from the child were positive for influenza A (not subtyped) by viral culture.  Autopsy specimens are being sent to the CDC for further testing. 

Nineteen influenza-associated pediatric deaths have been reported in Texas during the 2013-2014 influenza season. Cases of influenza-associated pediatric mortality (children <18 years of age) are reportable year-round and by law in Texas.

Month of Pediatric Death

Influenza A (H1N1)

Influenza A (H3N2)

Influenza A (Not Subtyped)

Influenza B

Influenza, Not
Typed / Not
Differentiated

Influenza virus co-infection: A (not subtyped) and B

Total, All Influenza Types / Subtypes

Table 7: Influenza-Associated Pediatric Deaths Reported in Texas During the 2013–2014 Season

2013

October

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

November

0

0

0

0

0

0

0


December

3

0

2

0

0

0

5

2014

January

6

0

1

1

0

0

8


February

0

0

1

0

0

1

2


March

0

0

1

2

0

0

3


April

0

0

0

0

0

0

0


May

0

0

0

0

0

0

0


June

0

0

1

0

0

0

0


July

0

0

0

0

0

0

0


Total

9

0

6

3

0

1

19

Statewide Influenza Activity Map

Figure 4: Texas Map Displaying the Highest Level of Influenza or ILI Activity Reported by County for the Week Ending June 14, (MMWR Week 24)

Texas Influenza Activity Map

 

Please note: The majority of influenza cases are not reportable by law in Texas. This map contains data from sentinel sites and only displays influenza and ILI cases that were reported to public health. Positive laboratory results are reported according to specimen collection date, or date received in the laboratory if the former is unknown.

Texas Influenza Surveillance Components and Measures
Activity codes    (see http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/overview.htm)
Statewide influenza activity level
    A code reported weekly by states and territories to CDC indicating the geographic spread of influenza in the state. Levels are no activity, sporadic, local, regional, and widespread.

ILINet Activity Indicator
    A statewide level of influenza-like illness intensity assigned to each state weekly by CDC based on data reported through ILINet.


Morbidity
Novel/variant influenza
    Thorough investigations are performed on all cases of novel/variant influenza. This condition is reportable by law in Texas.

Texas ILINet
    Providers voluntarily report weekly to CDC’s ILINet system on the number of outpatient visits for ILI and total outpatient visits. Providers may submit up to 5 specimens per month for influenza testing. See http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/idcu/disease/influenza/surveillance/ILINet/ for information on how to become an ILINet provider.

Enhanced ILINet/IISP
    Providers report weekly to ILINet and submit specimens on the first 10 patients seen with ILI each week. Specimens are tested for a variety of respiratory viruses.

ILI activity
    Non-ILINet providers report ILI or influenza data weekly to local or regional health departments.

Outbreaks
    Healthcare and childcare facilities report ILI and influenza outbreaks to health departments in Texas. This condition is reportable by law in Texas.


Mortality 
    
Influenza-associated pediatric deaths 
        Deaths that are associated with influenza in children < 18 years of age are reported to health departments in Texas. This condition is reportable by law in Texas. http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/idcu/disease/IAPM/


Laboratory 
        
DSHS Austin laboratory 
            Providers voluntarily submit specimens to the DSHS Austin laboratory for influenza PCR testing throughout the season. 
            Providers sign up for this program through their local health departments. 
        Laboratory Response Network (LRN) laboratories
            Providers voluntarily submit specimens to one of the 9 Texas LRNs for influenza PCR testing throughout the season. 
            Providers sign up for this program through their local health departments. 
        NREVSS 
            Laboratories voluntarily report influenza and other respiratory virus data weekly through the CDC’s online NREVSS reporting system. 
            Laboratories sign up for this program by contacting DSHS. http://www.cdc.gov/surveillance/nrevss/


Recommended Resources
Texas Department of State Health Services 
    
DSHS influenza page: http://www.texasflu.org/  
    
Influenza surveillance data and reports: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/idcu/disease/influenza/surveillance/
    
Map of Texas Health Service Regions: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/regions/state.shtm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    
National FluView weekly flu report: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/
    
Variant and novel influenza viruses: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/index.htm; http://www.cdc.gov/flu/swineflu/index.htm
    
Infection Control in Healthcare Facilities: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/infectioncontrol/
    
Seasonal Flu Information for Schools and Childcare Providers: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/school/index.htm

World Health Organization 
    
Influenza page: http://www.who.int/topics/influenza/en/  
    
Disease Outbreak News: http://www.who.int/csr/don/en/

2013 - 2014 Texas Influenza Surveillance Information --- Flu Reports

For the week ending: 10/05/13; 10/12/13; 10/19/13; 10/26/13; 11/2/13; 11/9/13; 11/16/13; 11/23/13; 11/30/13; 12/7/13; 12/14/13; 12/21/13; 12/28/13; 1/4/14; 1/11/14; 1/18/14; 1/25/14; 2/1/14; 2/8/14; 2/15/14; 2/22/14; 3/1/14; 3/8/14; 3/15/14; 3/22/14; 3/29/14; 4/5/14; 4/12/14; 4/19/14; 4/26/14; 5/3/14; 5/10/14; 5/17/14; 5/24/14; 5/31/14; 6/1/14; 6/8/14; 6/15/14; 6/22/14; 6/29/14; 7/5/14;

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Last updated July 21, 2014