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DSHS Authors: 2014 Research Articles by DSHS Staff

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The following list includes peer-reviewed research articles that have been written by staff of the Texas Department of State Health Services since its formation in September 2004. For more information about these articles or for a full-text copy, please contact the Medical and Research Library by e-mail at library@dshs.state.tx.us by calling (512) 776-7559.

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mrl-diamond2014 Articles (in date order with most recent first)

Forrester MB. Comparison of adverse events involving influenza vaccine reported to two programs. TX Public Health J. 2014;66(4):3-4.
No abstract.

Forrester MB. Anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in Texas. TX Public Health J. 2014;66(4):5.

No abstract.

Campagna J, Poe J, Robbins A, Rowlinson E. Estimating the Number of Men Who Have Sex with Men by Race/Ethnicity at the County Level in Texas [published online ahead of print October 28, 2014]. J Urban Health. 2014 Oct 28.
This analysis presents a method for estimating the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) at the county and metropolitan area level in Texas. Surveillance data consistently demonstrate that MSM experience a high burden of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Numerous studies have shown that MSM are also vulnerable to many other health concerns such as suicide, substance abuse, domestic violence and assault, homelessness, and mental illness. However, compilation of rates of HIV, STIs, and other health issues is dependent on estimation of population denominators. In the absence of systematic, consistent, and direct assessment of sexual orientation and gender identity in national surveys, it is difficult to estimate the size of at-risk populations. Previous estimates at the national and state level have been calculated using varied methodologies. However, to date, statewide estimates at the county level have only been produced for the state of Florida. County-level and metropolitan area estimates of MSM population were produced using three modified models developed by Lieb et al. These models used data on population and same-sex households from the US Census, along with estimates of sexual behavior from the National Survey on Family Growth. These models produce an estimate of 599,683 MSM in Texas (6.4 % of the adult male population). Metropolitan areas with the highest percentage of MSM population include Dallas and Austin (10.3 and 9.8 %, respectively). County-level estimates of MSM population range from 1.0 to 12.9 %. These local estimates are critical to targeting vulnerable populations and effective allocation of resources for prevention and treatment programs.

Ordonez JE, Kleinschmidt KC, Forrester MB. Electronic Cigarette Exposures Reported to Texas Poison Centers [published online ahead of print October 25, 2014]. Nicotine Tob Res.

Introduction: Exposure to the liquid nicotine solutions (LNS) IN: electronic cigarettes E-CIGS: may be dangerous because they are highly concentrated. Little is known about the impact of exposure on public health. This study describes E-CIG: exposures reported to poison centers. Methods: All E-CIG: exposures reported to Texas poison centers during 2009 to February 2014 were identified. Exposures involving other substances in addition to E-CIGS: and exposures not followed to a final medical outcome were included. The distributions of exposures by demographic and clinical factors were determined. Results: Of 225 total exposures, two were reported in 2009, six in 2010, 11 in 2011, 43 in 2012, 123 in 2013 and 40 through February 2014. Fifty-three percent (n=119) occurred among individuals age <5 years old, 41% (n=93) >20 years old and 6% (n=13) between 6-19 years. Fifty percent were female. The route of exposure was 78% ingestion. Eighty-seven percent of the exposures were unintentional and 5% intentional. The exposures occurred at patient's own residence in 95% of the cases. The clinical effects reported most often were vomiting (20%), nausea (10%), headache (4%), ocular irritation (5%), dizziness (5%), and lethargy (2%). Conclusion: ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES: exposures reported to poison centers are increasing. Most of the patients are young children. The exposures most frequently occur through ingestion. Reported exposures often do not have serious outcomes.

Collier MG, Khudyakov YE, Selvage D, et al. Outbreak of hepatitis A in the USA associated with frozen pomegranate arils imported from Turkey: an epidemiological case study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14(10):976-81.
BACKGROUND: In May, 2013, an outbreak of symptomatic hepatitis A virus infections occurred in the USA. Federal, state, and local public health officials investigated the cause of the outbreak and instituted actions to control its spread. We investigated the source of the outbreak and assessed the public health measures used. METHODS: We interviewed patients, obtained their shopping information, and did genetic analysis of hepatitis A virus recovered from patients' serum and stool samples. We tested products for the virus and traced supply chains. FINDINGS: Of 165 patients identified from ten states, 69 (42%) were admitted to hospital, two developed fulminant hepatitis, and one needed a liver transplant; none died. Illness onset occurred from March 31 to Aug 12, 2013. The median age of patients was 47 years (IQR 35-58) and 91 (55%) were women. 153 patients (93%) reported consuming product B from retailer A. 40 patients (24%) had product B in their freezers, and 113 (68%) bought it according to data from retailer A. Hepatitis A virus genotype IB, uncommon in the Americas, was recovered from specimens from 117 people with hepatitis A virus illness. Pomegranate arils that were imported from Turkey-where genotype IB is common-were identified in product B. No hepatitis A virus was detected in product B. INTERPRETATION: Imported frozen pomegranate arils were identified as the vehicle early in the investigation by combining epidemiology-with data from several sources-genetic analysis of patient samples, and product tracing. Product B was removed from store shelves, the public were warned not to eat product B, product recalls took place, and postexposure prophylaxis with both hepatitis A virus vaccine and immunoglobulin was provided. Our findings show that modern public health actions can help rapidly detect and control hepatitis A virus illness caused by imported food. Our findings show that postexposure prophylaxis can successfully prevent hepatitis A illness when a specific product is identified. Imported food products combined with waning immunity in some adult populations might make this type of intervention necessary in the future.

Case AP, Royle M, Scheuerle AE, et al. Birth defects, causal attributions, and ethnicity in the national birth defects prevention study. J Genet Couns. 2014;23(5):860-73.
In order to translate research findings into effective prevention strategies, it is important to understand people's beliefs about the causes of poor health outcomes. However, with the exception of knowledge and beliefs about folic acid supplementation, little is known regarding women's causal attributions women regarding birth defects. We employed Attribution Theory constructs to analyze open-text interview responses from 2,672 control mothers in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study who gave birth in 1997-2005. Common themes included use of alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs, and medications during pregnancy. Stress and emotional upset were also suggested as possible causes of birth defects. Genetic- and heredity-related responses were more likely to be mentioned by Asian/Pacific Islander women compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Hispanic women were less likely to suggest several specific possible teratogens, such as paint, pesticides, or other chemicals, but were more likely to suggest events occurring during childbirth. Differences also emerged among ethnic groups for theoretical constructs, although most responses were categorized as controllable, changeable over time, and with an internal locus of causality.

Langlois PH, Moffitt KB, Scheuerle AE. A modified panel of sentinel congenital anomalies for potential use in mutation epidemiology based on birth defects registry data. Am J Med Genet A. 2014;164A(9):2187-99.
Since 1983, several authors have used panels of "sentinel" congenital anomalies that might serve as indicators of the human genome mutation rate. The current study suggests a considerably updated panel, and applies it to public health birth defects registry data to determine the potential number of de novo cases. Data were taken from deliveries in 1999-2009 from the Texas Birth Defects Registry, an active surveillance program. Cases with one of the conditions or syndromes in the panel were identified using codes and text searches. Frequencies and birth prevalence were calculated for the overall panel and subcategories within it. Of the 60 conditions appearing in previous papers on sentinel phenotypes, 21 (35%) were used in the current study along with 27 new phenotypes. We found 1,694 cases. Of those, 1,100 exhibited phenotypes thought to arise de novo in at least 90% of the cases ("all/almost all" subpanel), and 594 considered de novo in roughly 50-90% of cases ("most" subpanel). Chromosomal deletion disorders were present in 523 cases and imprinting disorders in 243. After adjusting for maternal age, occurrence of cases in the total panel, "most" subpanel, and imprinting disorders subpanel were significantly associated with paternal age. Our panel of sentinel phenotypes differs from previous panels due to evolved knowledge of genetic disorders, different approaches with respect to interviewing, and different operational definitions. It is hoped that using an overall panel as well as subpanels may maximize statistical power as well as suggest potential mechanisms.

David MZ, Siegel JD, Henderson J, et al. Hand and nasal carriage of discordant Staphylococcus aureus isolates among urban jail detainees. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(9):3422-5.
In 928 Dallas County Jail detainees, nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus was found in 32.8% (26.5% methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus [MSSA] and 6.3% methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]), and hand carriage was found in 24.9% (20.7% MSSA and 4.1% MRSA). Among MRSA nasal carriers, 41% had hand MRSA carriage; 29% with hand MRSA carriage had no nasal S. aureus carriage. The prevalence of carriage was not associated with duration of the jail stay up to 180 days.

Chemaly RF, Dantes R, Shah DP, et al. Cluster and Sporadic Cases of Herbaspirillum Species Infections in Patients With Cancer [published online ahead of print September 12, 2014. Clin Infect Dis.
BACKGROUND: Herbaspirillum species are gram-negative Betaproteobacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere. We investigated a potential cluster of hospital-based Herbaspirillum species infections. METHODS: Cases were defined as Herbaspirillum species isolated from a patient in our comprehensive cancer center between 1 January 2006 and 15 October 2013. Case finding was performed by reviewing isolates initially identified as Burkholderia cepacia susceptible to all antibiotics tested, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing of available isolates to confirm their identity. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to test genetic relatedness. Facility observations, infection prevention assessments, and environmental sampling were performed to investigate potential sources of Herbaspirillum species. RESULTS: Eight cases of Herbaspirillum species were identified. Isolates from the first 5 clustered cases were initially misidentified as B. cepacia, and available isolates from 4 of these cases were indistinguishable. The 3 subsequent cases were identified by prospective surveillance and had different PFGE patterns. All but 1 case-patient had bloodstream infections, and 6 presented with sepsis. Underlying diagnoses included solid tumors (3), leukemia (3), lymphoma (1), and aplastic anemia (1). Herbaspirillum species infections were hospital-onset in 5 patients and community-onset in 3. All symptomatic patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics, and their infections resolved. No environmental source or common mechanism of acquisition was identified. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a hospital-based cluster of Herbaspirillum species infections. Herbaspirillum species are capable of causing bacteremia and sepsis in immunocompromised patients. Herbaspirillum species can be misidentified as Burkholderia cepacia by commercially available microbial identification systems.

Stenglein MD, Jacobson ER, Wozniak EJ, et al. Ball python nidovirus: a candidate etiologic agent for severe respiratory disease in Python regius. MBio. 2014;5(5):e01484-14.
A severe, sometimes fatal respiratory disease has been observed in captive ball pythons (Python regius) since the late 1990s. In order to better understand this disease and its etiology, we collected case and control samples and performed pathological and diagnostic analyses. Electron micrographs revealed filamentous virus-like particles in lung epithelial cells of sick animals. Diagnostic testing for known pathogens did not identify an etiologic agent, so unbiased metagenomic sequencing was performed. Abundant nidovirus-like sequences were identified in cases and were used to assemble the genome of a previously unknown virus in the order Nidovirales. The nidoviruses, which were not previously known to infect nonavian reptiles, are a diverse order that includes important human and veterinary pathogens. The presence of the viral RNA was confirmed in all diseased animals (n = 8) but was not detected in healthy pythons or other snakes (n = 57). Viral RNA levels were generally highest in the lung and other respiratory tract tissues. The 33.5-kb viral genome is the largest RNA genome yet described and shares canonical characteristics with other nidovirus genomes, although several features distinguish this from related viruses. This virus, which we named ball python nidovirus (BPNV), will likely establish a new genus in Torovirinae subfamily. The identification of a novel nidovirus in reptiles contributes to our understanding of the biology and evolution of related viruses, and its association with lung disease in pythons is a promising step toward elucidating an etiology for this long-standing veterinary disease.

Forrester MB. Referral of Pediatric Laundry Detergent Pack Exposure Reported to Poison Centers [published online ahead of print September 9, 2104]. J Emerg Med. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2014.06.034.
BACKGROUND: Concentrated laundry detergent packs are new products that may be more likely to cause adverse effects and serious medical outcomes among young children than traditional laundry detergent products. OBJECTIVE: The intent of this study was to examine whether certain factors might be associated with the referral of pediatric laundry detergent pack exposures by poison centers. METHODS: Cases were laundry detergent pack exposures involving patients age 5 years or younger reported to Texas poison centers during February 2012 to August 2013. The health care facility referral rate was calculated for selected factors. RESULTS: Of 912 exposures, 720 were managed on site and 192 were referred to a health care facility. The referral rate was 16.1% for patients with not serious outcomes and 71.6% for serious outcomes. The referral rate was 32.0% for patients age younger than 1 year and 14.3% to 22.1% for the older age groups. 31.0% of PurexTM, 25.5% of AllTM, and 19.3% of TideTM product exposures were referred. The referral rate was 33.3% for ocular exposures, 19.4% for dermal contact, and 20.2% for ingestions. The most common clinical effects and their referral rates were vomiting (30.5%), cough or choke (45.1%), ocular irritation (34.6%), red eye (25.4%), nausea (25.4%), drowsiness or lethargy (67.5%), oral irritation (16.7%), and dermal edema (68.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric exposures to laundry detergent packs were more likely to be referred to health care facilities if the laundry detergent pack brand was PurexTM, the exposure was ocular, or particular ocular, respiratory, dermal, or neurologic clinical effects were present.

Kwan A, Abraham RS, Currier R, et al. Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in 11 screening programs in the United States. JAMA. 2014;312(7):729-38.

IMPORTANCE: Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) using assays to detect T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) began in Wisconsin in 2008, and SCID was added to the national recommended uniform panel for newborn screened disorders in 2010. Currently 23 states, the District of Columbia, and the Navajo Nation conduct population-wide newborn screening for SCID. The incidence of SCID is estimated at 1 in 100,000 births. OBJECTIVES: To present data from a spectrum of SCID newborn screening programs, establish population-based incidence for SCID and other conditions with T-cell lymphopenia, and document early institution of effective treatments. DESIGN:Epidemiological and retrospective observational study. SETTING: Representatives in states conducting SCID newborn screening were invited to submit their SCID screening algorithms, test performance data, and deidentified clinical and laboratory information regarding infants screened and cases with nonnormal results. Infants born from the start of each participating program from January 2008 through the most recent evaluable date prior to July 2013 were included. Representatives from 10 states plus the Navajo Area Indian Health Service contributed data from 3,030,083 newborns screened with a TREC test. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Infants with SCID and other diagnoses of T-cell lymphopenia were classified. Incidence and, where possible, etiologies were determined. Interventions and survival were tracked. RESULTS: Screening detected 52 cases of typical SCID, leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome, affecting 1 in 58,000 infants (95% CI, 1/46,000-1/80,000). Survival of SCID-affected infants through their diagnosis and immune reconstitution was 87% (45/52), 92% (45/49) for infants who received transplantation, enzyme replacement, and/or gene therapy. Additional interventions for SCID and non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia included immunoglobulin infusions, preventive antibiotics, and avoidance of live vaccines. Variations in definitions and follow-up practices influenced the rates of detection of non-SCID T-cell lymphopenia. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Newborn screening in 11 programs in the United States identified SCID in 1 in 58,000 infants, with high survival. The usefulness of detection of non-SCID T-cell lymphopenias by the same screening remains to be determined.

Hoyt AT, Browne M, Richardson S, Romitti P, Druschel C; National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Maternal caffeine consumption and small for gestational age births: results from a population-based case-control study. Matern Child Health J. 2014;18(6):1540-51.
Caffeine is consumed in various forms during pregnancy, has increased half-life during pregnancy and crosses the placental barrier. Small for gestational age (SGA) is an important perinatal outcome and has been associated with long term complications. We examined the association between maternal caffeine intake and SGA using National Birth Defects Prevention Study data. Non-malformed live born infants with an estimated date of delivery from 1997-2007 (n = 7,943) were included in this analysis. Maternal caffeine exposure was examined as total caffeine intake and individual caffeinated beverage type (coffee, tea, and soda); sex-, race/ethnic-, and parity-specific growth curves were constructed to estimate SGA births. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interaction with caffeine exposures was assessed for maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, and folic acid. Six hundred forty-eight infants (8.2%) were found to be SGA in this analysis. Increasing aORs were observed for increasing intakes of total caffeine and for each caffeinated beverage with aORs (adjusting for maternal education, high blood pressure, and smoking) ranging from 1.3 to 2.1 for the highest intake categories (300+ mg/day total caffeine and 3+ servings/day for each beverage type). Little indication of additive interaction by maternal smoking, vasoconstrictor medication use, or folic acid intake was observed. We observed an increase in SGA births for mothers with higher caffeine intake, particularly for those consuming 300+ mg of caffeine per day. Increased aORs were also observed for tea intake but were more attenuated for coffee and soda intake.

Langlois PH, Hoyt AT, Desrosiers TA, et al. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring. Occup Environ Med. 2014;71(8):529-35.
OBJECTIVES: While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. METHODS: Data for 1997-2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. RESULTS: Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring.

McKinnish T, Rees DI, Langlois PH. Seasonality in birth defects, agricultural production and urban location. Econ Hum Biol. 2014;15C:120-128.
This paper tests whether the strength of the "spring spike" in birth defects is related to agricultural production and urban location using Texas Birth Defects Registry data for the period 1996-2007. We find evidence of a spike in birth defects among children conceived in the spring and summer, but it is more pronounced in urban non-agricultural counties than in other types of counties. Furthermore, the spike lasts longer in urban non-agricultural counties as compared to other types of counties.

Forrester MB. NBOMe designer drug exposures reported to Texas poison centers [published online ahead of print august 12, 2014]. J Addict Dis. doi: 10.1080/10550887.2014.950027
Use of 2-methoxybenzyl analogues of 2C-X phenethylamines (NBOMe) is increasing in the United States. Twenty-five NBOMe exposures reported to Texas poison centers during 2012-2013 were identified; 76% involved 25I-NBOMe, 12% 25C-NBOMe, and 12% an unknown NBOMe. Eighty-eight percent of the patients were male; the mean age was 17 years (range 14-25 years). The exposure route was 72% ingestion alone, 12% inhalation alone, 4% ingestion and inhalation, and 12% unknown route. The most common clinical effects were tachycardia (52%), agitation (48%), hallucinations (32%), hypertension (32%), confusion (24%), and mydriasis (20%). Two patients died.

Ruktanonchai DJ, Stonecipher S, Lindsey N, et al. Effect of aerial insecticide spraying on West Nile virus disease--north-central Texas, 2012. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91(2):240-5.
During 2012, four north-central Texas counties experienced high West Nile virus (WNV) disease incidence. Aerial insecticide spraying was conducted in two counties. To evaluate the effect of spraying on WNV disease, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in treated and untreated areas by comparing incidence before and after spraying; for unsprayed areas, before and after periods were defined by using dates from a corresponding sprayed area. In treated areas, WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence before and after spraying was 7.31/100,000 persons and 0.28/100,000 persons, respectively; the IRR was 26.42 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.42-56.20). In untreated areas, the before and after incidence was 4.80/100,000 persons and 0.45/100,000 persons, respectively; the IRR was 10.57 (95% CI: 6.11-18.28). The ratio of IRRs was 2.50 (95% CI: 0.98-6.35). Disease incidence decreased in both areas, but the relative change was greater in aerial-sprayed areas.

Suneja G, Shiels MS, Angulo R, et al. Cancer treatment disparities in HIV-infected individuals in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(22):2344-50.
PURPOSE: HIV-infected individuals with cancer have worse survival rates compared with their HIV-uninfected counterparts. One explanation may be differing cancer treatment; however, few studies have examined this. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used HIV and cancer registry data from Connecticut, Michigan, and Texas to study adults diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, or cervical, lung, anal, prostate, colorectal, or breast cancers from 1996 to 2010. We used logistic regression to examine associations between HIV status and cancer treatment, adjusted for cancer stage and demographic covariates. For a subset of local-stage cancers, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship between HIV status and standard treatment modality. We identified predictors of cancer treatment among individuals with both HIV and cancer. RESULTS: We evaluated 3,045 HIV-infected patients with cancer and 1,087,648 patients with cancer without HIV infection. A significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected individuals did not receive cancer treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.99), lung cancer (aOR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.80 to 2.64), Hodgkin's lymphoma (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.37), prostate cancer (aOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.46), and colorectal cancer (aOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.38 to 3.72). HIV infection was associated with a lack of standard treatment modality for local-stage DLBCL (aOR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.72), non-small-cell lung cancer (aOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.46 to 4.03), and colon cancer (aOR, 4.77; 95% CI, 1.76 to 12.96). Among HIV-infected individuals, factors independently associated with lack of cancer treatment included low CD4 count, male sex with injection drug use as mode of HIV exposure, age 45 to 64 years, black race, and distant or unknown cancer stage. CONCLUSION: HIV-infected individuals are less likely to receive treatment for some cancers than uninfected people, which may affect survival rates.

Hoyt AT, Canfield MA, Shaw GM, et al. Sociodemographic and hispanic acculturation factors and isolated anotia/microtia [published online ahead of print July 30, 2014]. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. doi: 10.1002/bdra.23282.
BACKGROUND: It has been observed in several studies that infants with anotia/microtia are more common among Hispanics compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We examined the association between selected Hispanic ethnicity and acculturation factors and anotia/microtia in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. METHODS: We examined data from mothers of 351 infants with isolated anotia/microtia and 8435 unaffected infants from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study with an expected delivery date from 1997 to 2007. Sociodemographic, maternal, and acculturation factors (e.g., age, maternal education, household income, body mass index, gestational diabetes, folic acid, smoking, alcohol intake, study center, parental birthplace, and years lived in the United States, maternal language) were assessed as overall risk factors and also as risk factors among subgroups of Hispanics (United States- and foreign-born) versus non-Hispanic whites. RESULTS: Compared with non-Hispanic whites, both United States- and foreign-born Hispanic mothers demonstrated substantially higher odds of delivering infants with anotia/microtia across nearly all strata of sociodemographic and other maternal factors (adjusted odds ratios range: 2.1-11.9). The odds of anotia/microtia was particularly elevated among Hispanic mothers who emigrated from Mexico after age five (adjusted odds ratios = 4.88; 95% confidence interval = 2.93-8.11) or who conducted the interview in Spanish (adjusted odds ratios = 4.97; 95% confidence interval = 3.00-8.24). CONCLUSION: We observed that certain sociodemographic and acculturation factors are associated with higher risks of anotia/microtia among offspring of Hispanic mothers.

Archer NP, Wilkinson AV, Ranjit N, et al. Genetic, psychosocial, and demographic factors associated with social disinhibition in Mexican-origin youth. Brain Behav. 2014;4(4):521-30.
INTRODUCTION: The genetic heritability for sensation-seeking tendencies ranges from 40 to 60%. Sensation-seeking behaviors typically manifest during adolescence and are associated with alcohol and cigarette experimentation in adolescents. Social disinhibition is an aspect of sensation-seeking that is closely tied to cigarette and alcohol experimentation. METHODS: We examined the contribution of candidate genes to social disinhibition among 1132 Mexican origin youth in Houston, Texas, adjusting for established demographic and psychosocial risk factors. Saliva samples were obtained at baseline in 2005-06, and social disinhibition and other psychosocial data were obtained in 2008-09. Participants were genotyped for 672 functional and tagging SNPs potentially related to sensation-seeking, risk-taking, smoking, and alcohol use. RESULTS: Six SNPs were significantly associated with social disinhibition scores, after controlling for false discovery and adjusting for population stratification and relevant demographic/psychosocial characteristics. Minor alleles for three of the SNPs (rs1998220 on OPRM1; rs9534511 on HTR2A; and rs4938056 on HTR3B) were associated with increased risk of social disinhibition, while minor alleles for the other three SNPs (rs1003921 on KCNC1; rs16116 downstream of NPY; and rs16870286 on LINC00518) exhibited a protective effect. Age, linguistic acculturation, thrill and adventure-seeking, and drug and alcohol-seeking were all significantly positively associated with increased risk of social disinhibition in a multivariable model (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results add to our knowledge of genetic risk factors for social disinhibition. Additional research is needed to verify whether these SNPs are associated with social disinhibition among youth of different ethnicities and nationalities, and to elucidate whether and how these SNPs functionally contribute to social disinhibition.

Fixler DE, Xu P, Nembhard WN, Ethen MK, Canfield MA. Age at referral and mortality from critical congenital heart disease. Pediatrics. 2014;134(1):e98-105.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Newborn pulse oximetry screening is recommended to promote early referral of neonates with critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) and reduce mortality; however, the impact of late referral on mortality is not well defined. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe the association between timing of referral to a cardiac center and mortality in 2360 liveborn neonates with CCHD. METHODS:Neonates with CCHD born before pulse oximetry screening (1996-2007) were selected from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and linked to state birth and death records. Age at referral was ascertained from date of first cardiac procedure at a cardiac center. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate factors associated with late referral and mortality; the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate 3-month survival. RESULTS: Median age at referral was 1 day (25th-75th percentile: 0-6 days). Overall, 27.5% (649 of 2360) were referred after age 4 days and 7.5% (178 of 2360) had no record of referral. Neonatal mortality was 18.1% (277 of 1533) for those referred at 0 to 4 days of age, 9.0% (34 of 379) for those referred at 5 to 27 days of age, and 38.8% (69 of 178) for those with no referral. No improvement in age at referral was found across the 2 eras within 1996-2007. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of neonates with CCHD experienced late or no referral to cardiac specialty centers, accounting for a significant number of the deaths. Future population-based studies are needed to determine the benefit of pulse oximetry screening on mortality and morbidity.

Langlois PH, Moffitt KB, Scheuerle AE. A modified panel of sentinel congenital anomalies for potential use in mutation epidemiology based on birth defects registry data [published online ahead of print June 10, 2014]. Am J Med Genet A. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36623
Since 1983, several authors have used panels of "sentinel" congenital anomalies that might serve as indicators of the human genome mutation rate. The current study suggests a considerably updated panel, and applies it to public health birth defects registry data to determine the potential number of de novo cases. Data were taken from deliveries in 1999-2009 from the Texas Birth Defects Registry, an active surveillance program. Cases with one of the conditions or syndromes in the panel were identified using codes and text searches. Frequencies and birth prevalence were calculated for the overall panel and subcategories within it. Of the 60 conditions appearing in previous papers on sentinel phenotypes, 21 (35%) were used in the current study along with 27 new phenotypes. We found 1,694 cases. Of those, 1,100 exhibited phenotypes thought to arise de novo in at least 90% of the cases ("all/almost all" subpanel), and 594 considered de novo in roughly 50-90% of cases ("most" subpanel). Chromosomal deletion disorders were present in 523 cases and imprinting disorders in 243. After adjusting for maternal age, occurrence of cases in the total panel, "most" subpanel, and imprinting disorders subpanel were significantly associated with paternal age. Our panel of sentinel phenotypes differs from previous panels due to evolved knowledge of genetic disorders, different approaches with respect to interviewing, and different operational definitions. It is hoped that using an overall panel as well as subpanels may maximize statistical power as well as suggest potential mechanisms.

Forrester MB. Lurasidone ingestions reported to Texas poison centers. J Pharm Technol. 2014;30:125-129.
No abstract.

Eshofonie AO, Lin H, Valcin RP, Martin LR, Grunenwald PE. An Outbreak of Pertussis in Rural Texas: An Example of the Resurgence of the Disease in the United States [published online ahead of print June 14, 2014]. J Community Health. 2014 Jun 14.
During 2012, an increase in the number of pertussis cases or outbreaks was reported among most states within the United States. The majority of these cases included previously vaccinated children between the ages of 7-10 years. This underscores the growing concern regarding current immunization practices and vaccine efficacy, especially as it pertains to pertussis prevention within this age group. In the fall of 2012, an outbreak of pertussis occurred within a school district in a rural Texas county that was reflective of this national pattern. Our objective is to describe this outbreak, highlight the similarities with the national trend, and identify strategies for better disease prevention. The cases in this outbreak were interviewed and laboratory testing done. Information regarding exposure and immunization history among cases was obtained. Immunization audits of the affected institutions were also conducted. We performed a descriptive analysis of the collected data using EPI-INFO software v.3.5.3. A total of 34 cases were identified in this outbreak, of which 23 were PCR confirmed and 11 were epidemiologically linked. Ages ranged from 5 months to 12 years, and 62 % were among children aged 7-10 years. All cases were up-to-date on their pertussis vaccinations. Immunization coverage rate was over 90 % within each of the affected institutions. The characteristics of this outbreak bear striking similarities to the current national trend in terms of age groups and immunization status of the affected cases. Increased focus on this vulnerable target group, including heightened scrutiny of vaccine efficacy and delivery, is indicated.

Lim H, Agopian A, Whitehead L, et al. 0306 Parental occupational exposure to ionising radiation and selected birth defects in the US. Occup Environ Med. 2014;71(Suppl 1):A105.

OBJECTIVES: Results of previous studies of occupational exposure to ionising radiation (IR) and birth defects are inconsistent. Our objective was to assess the association between maternal and paternal occupational exposure to ionising radiation (IR) and birth defects using a larger sample than previous studies. METHOD: We studied 27 809 case mothers and 10 200 control mothers who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), giving birth between 1997 and 2009. Our exposure assessment was based on a textual analysis of the mother's description of her occupation, workplace and job activities (and those of the infant's father) during the three months before and the three months after the estimated date of conception. Logistic regression was used to examine crude and adjusted odds ratios for the association between possible maternal and paternal occupational exposures to IR and 45 birth defects. We assessed the possibility of confounding from pre-pregnancy diabetes and body mass index, smoking, use of supplements containing folic acid, use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, pregnancy intention, study location and demographic variables. RESULTS: We excluded 17 mothers with a history of cancer, and 12 568 mothers who were unemployed, homemakers or students during the periconceptional period. Overall, 3% of the mothers and 2% of the fathers were exposed to IR. The remainder of our results are underway and will be presented at the meeting. CONCLUSIONS: Our results will be interpreted taking account of multiple statistical comparisons and the possibility of recall bias.

Eshofonie AO, Lin H, Valcin RP, Martin LR, Grunenwald PE. An Outbreak of Pertussis in Rural Texas: An Example of the Resurgence of the Disease in the United States [Published online ahead of print June 14, 2014] .  J Community Health. doi:10.1007/s10900-014-9902-2
During 2012, an increase in the number of pertussis cases or outbreaks was reported among most states within the United States. The majority of these cases included previously vaccinated children between the ages of 7-10 years. This underscores the growing concern regarding current immunization practices and vaccine efficacy, especially as it pertains to pertussis prevention within this age group. In the fall of 2012, an outbreak of pertussis occurred within a school district in a rural Texas county that was reflective of this national pattern. Our objective is to describe this outbreak, highlight the similarities with the national trend, and identify strategies for better disease prevention. The cases in this outbreak were interviewed and laboratory testing done. Information regarding exposure and immunization history among cases was obtained. Immunization audits of the affected institutions were also conducted. We performed a descriptive analysis of the collected data using EPI-INFO software v.3.5.3. A total of 34 cases were identified in this outbreak, of which 23 were PCR confirmed and 11 were epidemiologically linked. Ages ranged from 5 months to 12 years, and 62 % were among children aged 7-10 years. All cases were up-to-date on their pertussis vaccinations. Immunization coverage rate was over 90 % within each of the affected institutions. The characteristics of this outbreak bear striking similarities to the current national trend in terms of age groups and immunization status of the affected cases. Increased focus on this vulnerable target group, including heightened scrutiny of vaccine efficacy and delivery, is indicated.

Forrester MB. Buckyball magnet ingestions: Small objects that can cause big problems. TX Public Health J. 2014;66(2):4.
No abstract.

Forrester MB. Rodent glue traps: A sticky problem with young children. TX Public Health J. 2014;66(2):5.
No abstract.

Moldovan-Johnson M, Martinez L, Lewis N, Freres D, Hornik RC. The Role of Patient-Clinician Information Engagement and Information Seeking from Nonmedical Channels in Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Cancer Patients. J Health Commun. 2014:1-18.
Previous research suggests positive effects of health information seeking on prevention behaviors such as diet, exercise, and fruit and vegetable consumption. The present study builds upon this research and strengthens causal claims from it by examining the lagged effect of patient-clinician information engagement on fruit and vegetable consumption as well as the indirect effect on the outcome through seeking information from nonmedical channels. The results are based on data collected from a randomly drawn sample of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry who completed mail surveys in the Fall of 2006 and 2007. There was a 65% response rate for baseline subjects (resulting n = 2,013); of those, 1,293 were interviewed 1 year later, and 1,257 were available for our analyses. Results show a positive lagged main effect of patient-clinician information engagement at baseline on fruit and vegetable consumption at follow-up (B = 0.26, SE = 0.10, p = .01). The mediation analysis shows that patient-clinician information engagement leads to increased fruit and vegetable consumption among cancer patients, in part through patients' information seeking from nonmedical channels. Implications of these findings for the cancer patient population and for physicians are discussed.

Yendell SJ, Taylor J, Biggerstaff BJ, Tabony L, Staples JE, Fischer M. Use of laboratory reports as predictors of West Nile virus disease cases, Texas, 2008-2012 [published online ahead of print April 24, 2014]. Epidemiol Infect. 2014:1-8.
SUMMARY We evaluated laboratory reports as early indicators of West Nile virus (WNV) disease cases in Texas. We compared WNV laboratory results in the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System Base System (NBS) to WNV disease cases reported to the state health department from 2008 to 2012. We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of NBS reports, estimated the number of disease cases expected per laboratory report, and determined lead and lag times. The sensitivity and PPV of NBS laboratory reports were 86% and 77%, respectively. For every 10 positive laboratory reports, we expect 9·0 (95% confidence interval 8·9-9·2) reported disease cases. Laboratory reports preceded case reports with a lead time of 7 days. Electronic laboratory reports provided longer lead times than manually entered reports (P < 0·01). NBS laboratory reports are useful estimates of future reported WNV disease cases and may provide timely information for planning public health interventions.

Ko SC, Schillie SF, Walker T, et al. Hepatitis B vaccine response among infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive women. Vaccine. 2014;32(18):2127-33.
PURPOSE: Annually, an estimated 25,000 infants are born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women in the United States. Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) are recommended at birth, followed by completion of vaccine series and post-vaccination serologic testing (PVST). In a large cohort of infants born to HBsAg-positive women, factors influencing vaccine response were evaluated. METHODS:Data were from HBsAg-negative infants born to HBsAg-positive women in the Enhanced Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program (EPHBPP) from 2008 to 2013. Vaccine non-responders were defined as infants with antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) <10mIU/mL at PVST after receiving ≥3 vaccine doses. Multivariable analyses modeled statistically significant predictor variables associated with non-response. RESULTS: A total of 17,951 maternal-infant pairs were enrolled; 8654 HBsAg-negative infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers received ≥3 doses of vaccine with anti-HBs results. 8199 (94.7%) infants responded to a primary HepB series; 199 (94.8%) to a second series. Factors associated with anti-HBs <10mIU/mL included gestational age <37 weeks, vaccine birth dose >12h after birth, timing of final vaccine dose <6 months after birth, receipt of 3 vs. 4 vaccine doses, and PVST interval >6 months from final vaccine dose in bivariate analysis. PVST interval >6 months from final vaccine dose (OR=2.7, CI=2.0, 3.6) was significantly associated with anti-HBs <10mIU/mL; the proportion increased from 2% at 1-2 months to 21.6% at 15-16 months after the final dose. Receipt of a 4th dose improved the response rate (OR=0.5, CI=0.3, 0.8). CONCLUSIONS: Ninety-five percent of a large cohort of uninfected infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers in the United States responded to primary HepB vaccine series. The proportion of infants with anti-HBs <10mIU/mL increased with longer interval between the final vaccine dose and PVST. Optimal timing of PVST is within 1-2 months of final vaccine dose to avoid unnecessary revaccination.

Kemper AR, Green NS, Calonge N, et al. Decision-making process for conditions nominated to the recommended uniform screening panel: statement of the US Department of Health and Human Services Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. Genet Med. 2014 Feb;16(2):183-7.
PURPOSE: The US Secretary of Health and Human Services provides guidance to state newborn screening programs about which conditions should be included in screening (i.e., the "Recommended Uniform Screening Panel"). This guidance is informed by evidence-based recommendations from the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. This report describes the Advisory Committee's revised decision-making process for considering conditions nominated to the panel. METHODS:An expert panel meeting was held in April 2012 to revise the decision matrix, which helps to guide the recommendation process. In January 2013, the Advisory Committee voted to adopt the revised decision matrix. RESULTS: The revised decision matrix clarifies the approach to rating magnitude and certainty of the net benefit of screening to the population of screened newborns for nominated conditions, and now includes the consideration of the capability of state newborn screening programs for population-wide implementation by evaluating the feasibility and readiness of states to adopt screening for nominated conditions. CONCLUSION: The revised decision matrix will bring increased quality, transparency, and consistency to the process of modifying the recommended uniform screening panel and will now allow formal evaluation of the challenges that state newborn screening programs face in adopting screening for new conditions.

Forrester M. Neonicotinoid insecticide exposures reported to six poison centers in Texas [published online ahead of print February 10, 2014]. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2014;33(6):568-573. doi:10.1177/0960327114522500
Neonicotinoids are a relatively newer class of insecticide. Used primarily in agriculture, neonicotinoids are also used for flea control in domestic animals. Information on human exposures to neonicotinoids is limited. Neonicotinoid exposures reported to Texas poison centers during 2000-2012 were identified and the distribution by selected factors examined. Of 1,142 total exposures, most products contained imidacloprid (77%) or dinotefuran (17%). The exposures were seasonal with half reported during May-August. The most common routes of exposure were ingestion (51%), dermal (44%), and ocular (11%). The distribution by patient age was 5 years or less (28%), 6-19 years (9%), 20 years or more (61%), and unknown (2%); and 64% of the patients were female. Of all, 97% of the exposures were unintentional and 97% occurred at the patient's own residence. The management site was on-site (92%), already at/en route to a health care facility (6%), and referred to a health care facility (2%). The medical outcomes included no effect (22%), minor effect (11%), moderate effect (1%), not followed judged nontoxic (14%), not followed minimal effects (46%), unable to follow potentially toxic (1%), and unrelated effect (4%). The most commonly reported adverse clinical effects were ocular irritation (6%), dermal irritation (5%), nausea (3%), vomiting (2%), oral irritation (2%), erythema (2%), and red eye (2%). The most frequently reported treatments were dilution/wash (85%) and food (6%). In summary, these data suggest that the majority of neonicotinoid exposures reported to the poison centers may be managed outside of health care facilities with few clinical effects expected.

Forrester MB, Maxwell JC. Krokodil: an urban legend in the United States so far. TX Public Health J. 2014;66(1):9-10.
No abstract.

Tsai RJ, Sievert R, Prado J, et al. Notes from the field: acute illness associated with use of pest strips - seven U.S. states and Canada. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63:42-43.
No abstract.

Lupo PJ, Mitchell LE, Canfield MA, et al. Maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and risk of neural tube defects. Mol Genet Metab. 2014;111(1):46-51.
Single-gene analyses indicate that maternal genes associated with metabolic conditions (e.g., obesity) may influence the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, to our knowledge, there have been no assessments of maternal-fetal metabolic gene-gene interactions and NTDs. We investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 7 maternal metabolic genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, and TCF7L2) and 2 fetal metabolic genes (SLC2A2 and UCP2). Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for birth years 1999-2007. We used a 2-step approach to evaluate maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions. First, a case-only approach was applied to screen all potential maternal and fetal interactions (n = 76), as this design provides greater power in the assessment of gene-gene interactions compared to other approaches. Specifically, ordinal logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each maternal-fetal gene-gene interaction, assuming a log-additive model of inheritance. Due to the number of comparisons, we calculated a corrected p-value (q-value) using the false discovery rate. Second, we confirmed all statistically significant interactions (q < 0.05) using a log-linear approach among case-parent triads. In step 1, there were 5 maternal-fetal gene-gene interactions with q < 0.05. The "top hit" was an interaction between maternal ENPP1 rs1044498 and fetal SLC2A2 rs6785233 (interaction OR = 3.65, 95% CI: 2.32-5.74, p = 2.09×10(-8), q=0.001), which was confirmed in step 2 (p = 0.00004). Our findings suggest that maternal metabolic genes associated with hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and fetal metabolic genes involved in glucose homeostasis may interact to increase the risk of NTDs.

Zheteyeva YA, Tosh P, Patel PR, et al. Hepatitis B outbreak associated with a home health care agency serving multiple assisted living facilities in Texas, 2008-2010. Am J Infect Control. 2014;42(1):77-81.
BACKGROUND: Most studies have not demonstrated improved survival after prenatal diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease, including hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). However, the effect of delivery near a cardiac surgical center (CSC), the recommended action after prenatal diagnosis, on HLHS mortality has been poorly investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Texas Birth Defects Registry data, 1999 through 2007, which monitored >3.4 million births, we investigated the association between distance (calculated driving time) from birth center to CSC and neonatal mortality in 463 infants with HLHS. Infants with extracardiac birth defects or genetic disorders were excluded. The associations between prenatal diagnosis, CSC HLHS volume, and mortality were also examined. Neonatal mortality in infants born <10 minutes from a CSC was 21.0%, 10 to 90 minutes 25.2%, and >90 minutes 39.6% (P for trend <0.001). Prenatal diagnosis alone was not associated with improved survival (P=0.14). In multivariable analysis, birth >90 minutes from a CSC remained associated with increased mortality (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.45), compared with <10 minutes. In subanalysis, birth >90 minutes from a CSC was associated with higher pretransport mortality (odds ratio, 6.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.52-17.74) and birth 10 to 90 minutes with higher presurgical mortality (odds ratio, 4.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-17.00). Higher surgical mortality was associated with lower CSC HLHS volume (odds ratio per 10 patients, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Infants with HLHS born far from a CSC have increased neonatal mortality, and most of this mortality is presurgical. Efforts to improve prenatal diagnosis of HLHS and subsequent delivery near a large volume CSC may significantly improve neonatal HLHS survival.

Morris SA, Ethen MK, Penny DJ, et al. Prenatal diagnosis, birth location, surgical center, and neonatal mortality in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Circulation. 2014;129(3):285-92.
BACKGROUND: Most studies have not demonstrated improved survival after prenatal diagnosis of critical congenital heart disease, including hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). However, the effect of delivery near a cardiac surgical center (CSC), the recommended action after prenatal diagnosis, on HLHS mortality has been poorly investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Texas Birth Defects Registry data, 1999 through 2007, which monitored >3.4 million births, we investigated the association between distance (calculated driving time) from birth center to CSC and neonatal mortality in 463 infants with HLHS. Infants with extracardiac birth defects or genetic disorders were excluded. The associations between prenatal diagnosis, CSC HLHS volume, and mortality were also examined. Neonatal mortality in infants born <10 minutes from a CSC was 21.0%, 10 to 90 minutes 25.2%, and >90 minutes 39.6% (P for trend <0.001). Prenatal diagnosis alone was not associated with improved survival (P=0.14). In multivariable analysis, birth >90 minutes from a CSC remained associated with increased mortality (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.45), compared with <10 minutes. In subanalysis, birth >90 minutes from a CSC was associated with higher pretransport mortality (odds ratio, 6.69; 95% confidence interval, 2.52-17.74) and birth 10 to 90 minutes with higher presurgical mortality (odds ratio, 4.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-17.00). Higher surgical mortality was associated with lower CSC HLHS volume (odds ratio per 10 patients, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Infants with HLHS born far from a CSC have increased neonatal mortality, and most of this mortality is presurgical. Efforts to improve prenatal diagnosis of HLHS and subsequent delivery near a large volume CSC may significantly improve neonatal HLHS survival.

Moldovan-Johnson M, Tan AS, Hornik RC. Navigating the cancer information environment: The reciprocal relationship between patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources. Health Commun. 2014;29(10):974-83.
Prior theory has argued and empirical studies have shown that cancer patients rely on information from their health care providers as well as lay sources to understand and make decisions about their disease. However, research on the dynamic and interdependent nature of cancer patients' engagement with different information sources is lacking. This study tested the hypotheses that patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources influence one another longitudinally among a representative cohort of 1,293 cancer survivors in Pennsylvania. The study hypotheses were supported in a series of lagged multiple regression analyses. Baseline seeking information from nonmedical sources positively predicted subsequent patient-clinician information engagement at 1-year follow-up. The reverse relationship was also statistically significant; baseline patient-clinician information engagement positively predicted information seeking from nonmedical sources at follow-up. These findings suggest that cancer survivors move between nonmedical and clinician sources in a dynamic way to learn about their disease.

 

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Last updated November 20, 2014